Global Eagle Entertainment
Global Eagle Entertainment Inc. (Form: 10-K, Received: 03/17/2016 16:08:33)
UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

x
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2015

OR

o
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
 
FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM __________ TO ________

COMMISSION FILE NUMBER 001-35176

GLOBAL EAGLE ENTERTAINMENT INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
 
27-4757800
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
 
 
 
4553 Glencoe Avenue
 
 
Los Angeles, California
 
90292
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (310) 437-6000

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Common Stock, $0.0001 par value
Name of each exchange on which registered
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes o No x

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Website, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes x No o

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (Section 229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K. o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer o
 
Accelerated filer x
 
Non-accelerated filer o
 
Smaller reporting company o

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No x

The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant, computed as of June 30, 2015 (the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter), was approximately $614,229,906 .

As of March 14, 2016 , there were 78,648,407 shares of the registrant’s common stock issued and outstanding (excluding 3,053,634 shares of common stock held by a wholly-owned subsidiary of the registrant).

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement relating to the registrant’s 2016 Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be filed hereafter are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


Table of Contents

GLOBAL EAGLE ENTERTAINMENT INC.

INDEX TO FORM 10-K

YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2015

Item No.
 
Description
 
Page
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Table of Contents

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Overview
Global Eagle Entertainment Inc. (the “Company,” “Global Eagle,” “GEE,” “we,” “us,” or “our”) is a worldwide provider of aircraft connectivity systems, operations solutions and media content to the travel industry. Through our comprehensive product and services platform, we provide airlines with a wide range of in-flight solutions, including Wi-Fi, movies, television, music, interactive software, as well as portable in-flight entertainment ("IFE") solutions, content management services, e-commerce solutions and original content development. Serving more than 150 airlines worldwide, our mission is to deliver exceptional quality and value to our customers to help them achieve their passenger experience objectives. Our business is comprised of two operating segments: Connectivity and Content.
Our Connectivity segment provides our airline partners and their passengers with Wi-Fi connectivity over Ku-band satellite transmissions, and to a lesser extent operations solutions to airline customers. This segment offers specialized network equipment, media applications and premium content services that enable airline passengers to access in-flight Internet, live television, on-demand content, texting services, shopping and travel-related information, as well as real-time data and operations solutions that enable airlines to improve their internal operations. With our Airconnect solution installed on over 700 aircraft today, we operate one of the largest fleets of aircraft enhanced with satellite-based in-flight connectivity ("IFC") services.
Our Content segment selects, manages and distributes wholly-owned and licensed media content, video and music programming, applications, digital advertising solutions and games to more than 150 airlines worldwide, as well as to maritime and other away-from-home non-theatrical markets.
Our Connectivity business generates revenue primarily through the sale of Internet access, live television, advertising, operations solutions and sponsorship and other related services, as well as the equipment to support these IFC services. Our Content business generates revenue primarily through the licensing of acquired and third party media content, video and music programming, and video games, and secondarily from value added services such as selection, purchase, production, customer support and technical editing and curating of media content in connection with the integration and servicing of in-flight entertainment programs and digital advertising.
Operating Segments
Connectivity
We provide our airline partners and their passengers with Wi-Fi connectivity via Ku-band satellite transmissions. Our connectivity system enables aircraft to connect to orbiting satellites including Ku-band satellites and the soon-to-be launched Ku-band High Throughput Satellites ("Ku-HTS"), and to communicate with existing satellite ground earth stations. Our connectivity solution provides airline passengers with Wi-Fi based Internet access, live television, on-demand content, texting services, shopping, and flight and destination information.
Our Connectivity segment commenced operations in 2004. Our Wi-Fi connectivity system was first deployed by a domestic commercial airline in 2009 and our broadband services became fully operational in 2010. Following the completion of our licensed and operational in-flight broadband system in 2010, installation of our connectivity system equipment on Southwest Airlines Co. aircraft commenced and we began to generate revenues. We obtain satellite coverage through Hughes Network Systems, LLC ("Hughes"), a global satellite services company, and New Skies Satellites B.V. ("SES"), an affiliate of SES. S.A., one of the largest global satellite services providers. On October 24, 2014, we entered into a multi-year agreement with SES to provide additional Ku-band satellite coverage beyond our existing satellite commitments today, including future Ku- HTS coverage. With our Airconnect solution installed on over 700 aircraft today, we operate one of the largest fleets of aircraft enhanced with satellite-based IFC services With the completion of two acquisitions in August 2015, including Marks Systems, Inc. (d/b/a masFlight), or masFlight, and NavAero AB, or navAero, we began generating revenue from operations solutions. Operations solutions capture, process and deliver aircraft operational, administrative and crew-related data and analytics to drive operational savings for our airline customers.

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As of December 31, 2015, our Connectivity solutions have been contracted with the following customers:
2010 - Southwest Airlines Co.;
2011 - Norwegian Air Shuttle;
2011 - WirelessG (Mango Airlines);
2012 - Icelandair; 
2014 - Air China (trial):
2014 - NOK Air;
2014 - Air France / Orange (trial);
2015 - flydubai and,
2015 - Shareco (“Shareco” is a company owned by the HNA Group)
Connectivity Segment Products and Services :
Our connectivity platform, Airconnect™ , is currently operational on over 700 aircraft as of March 2016 . With 24-hour operations, aircraft equipped with our Airconnect system serve more than thirty-five million passengers annually. As one of the world’s leading providers of content, connectivity and digital media solutions to the travel industry, Airconnect offers a Ku satellite-based IFE and connectivity solution that provides a cost effective, high performance IFC choice for any airline, of any size, anywhere in the world. Our platform provides airlines with a single resource for global connectivity and the latest sought-after content and rich digital media solutions that entertain and engage passengers. At the same time, it provides airlines the opportunity to differentiate and monetize their IFC offering.
Our Airconnect service is offerable worldwide to a growing number of airlines. Through the service, airline passengers can connect to the Internet through their personal Wi-Fi enabled devices. In many areas of the world, Airconnect passengers can access the Internet from the moment they enter the aircraft until they reach their destination, providing them with gate-to-gate connectivity unlike other IFC services. As a white-label provider of connectivity services, we provide our airline customers flexibility in how they want to brand and price the Airconnect service to their passengers. Our fee structure for Wi-Fi Internet service varies by airline, and is customarily in the form of (i) a set fee for each enplaned passenger, (ii) a fee based on usage by passengers or (iii) flat rates per installed aircraft. In order to implement our connectivity services, we also provide our airline customers with the following:
Connectivity Equipment - we sell and lease equipment that enables our satellite-based services to operate on aircraft. Our equipment is generally shipped and sold as a single kit, with components of the kits separately priced for future ordering. Significant components of our equipment kits include the radome, antenna, modems, wireless access points and activation packages. Substantially all of our equipment is manufactured and warrantied by third party manufacturers.
Regulatory Support - we obtain Supplemental Type Certificates (“STCs”), which are certificates issued when an applicant has received Federal Aviation Administration (“FAA”), European Aviation Safety Agency (“EASA”) or similar international regulatory approval to modify an aircraft from its original type certificate approval. An STC on an aircraft type enables our equipment to be installed on that aircraft type. Our equipment is linefit on the new Boeing 737MAX and we currently have STCs for retrofitting our system on Boeing 737, 757, 777 and Airbus A320 aircraft types.
Post-Implementation Support - once our equipment is installed and operational, we provide each aircraft technical and network support, which includes 24/7 operational assistance and monitoring of the connectivity performance and bandwidth of our satellite-based services.
Airconnect Global® Antenna - In partnership with Quantenelektronische Systeme GmbH (“QEST”), Global Eagle has designed a new satellite antenna that will enable global usage of our services, including equatorial regions of the world (the “Global Antenna”). The Global Antenna’s innovative design features a first-of-its-kind 3-axis precision pointing mechanism capable of delivering superior satellite connectivity and continuous coverage, including during flights near or below the

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equator, at high latitudes, or during banking maneuvers. It is optimized to deliver airlines a breakthrough mix of reliability, high connection speeds and global coverage. The Global Antenna will utilize a revolutionary steerable pointing system to optimize coverage anywhere a commercial aircraft flies.
The Global Antenna will be compatible with our current installation architecture and STCs, and is also intended to meet the requirements for future line-fit installations. The Global Antenna is expected to be commercially available in mid-2016.
In late 2015, GEE entered into a new agreement with Hughes Network Systems, LLC ("Hughes"), the world's leading provider of broadband satellite solutions and services, to utilize Hughes' JUPITER™ System HT Aero Modem to power GEE's next-generation, high-performance broadband aeronautical service. Hughes' HT Aero Modem, including the core router module and JUPITER mobility technology, features the JUPITER System second-generation SoC (System on a chip) that supports over 200 Mbps of throughput, readily accommodating the highest demands for aeronautical broadband. Compared to Hughes' prior-generation mobility terminal, the new HT modem delivers over a 10 times increase in throughput performance to an individual aircraft. Designed for the aviation broadband industry, the HT Aero Modem technology also provides faster spot beam and satellite switchover times. The modem is DO160 compliant and is compatible with GEE's current antenna system, enabling easy and cost-effective upgrade to improve speeds for GEE's current connected fleet.
Airtime IFE
Our Airtime IFE system enables airline passengers to watch a custom suite of IFE and connectivity solutions on their personal devices. Through an in-cabin Wi-Fi solution, the Airtime IFE system is a cost effective, easy-to-install system that can replicate portions of the Airconnect IFE passenger experience without the need of the Airconnect system hardware. The Airtime IFE platform delivers content directly to all personal devices, including passenger laptops, tablets and smartphones utilizing Digital Rights Management (DRM) technology to offer secured viewing of the latest Hollywood content.
The Airtime IFE solution also enables airlines to brand their IFE services through a customizable portal (user interface) that becomes the central platform for delivering entertainment in-flight. Airtime IFE offers a comprehensive line-up of world-class content and airlines determine access and pricing. The hardware required to power Airtime IFE consists of a server management unit (“SMU”) and wireless routers, and can be installed on a plane in 12 hours. Through a dedicated wireless network, content can be refreshed as often as an airline requires. Furthermore, our combined content, distribution and technology platforms enable airlines and millions of passengers worldwide with the industry’s most complete offering of IFE content and can deliver the most popular content according to geographical and passenger demographics. News content and sports programming can be delivered to a passenger via Airtime IFE’s near-live content capability, which can be refreshed daily.
Live Television Programming
In addition to Internet connectivity, we offer live television programming whereby airline passengers can watch a wide range of live television channels through their personal Wi-Fi enabled devices. Including up to 20 live channels, our live television product includes a variety of programming options such as news channels, major broadcast networks, sports and specialty cable network channels. We also offer a large selection of video-on-demand content in connection with our live television channels. Today, our fee structure for our live television package on Southwest Airlines is based on a ‘free-to-the-passenger’ sponsorship model whereby we receive a fixed fee per month from Southwest Airlines. In the absence of a sponsorship fee structure, Southwest Airlines has the option to pay us (i) a set fee for each enplaned passenger to continue the free to the passenger service or (ii) a fee based on the purchase of the service by passengers.
Digital Media
Our digital media services encompasses a wide variety of apps and features that can be delivered to an airline. Through our Airtime and Airtime IFE products, we deliver our digital media solutions through a web-based portal for the connected aircraft. A turn-key solution for airlines, the web portal offers a fully customizable wireless IFE experience, including multiple entertainment and connectivity options delivered directly to passengers’ devices. The web portal is white-labeled, enabling our airline customers to customize the home page with their own logo, language and branding.
Through our digital media services, we offer (i) advertising, (ii) content for brands to sponsor, (iii) interactive moving in-flight maps, destination and travel-related services and (iv) video on demand or “VOD.” VOD enables customers the ability to watch feature films or television content in-flight and over their personal Wi-Fi enabled devices in exchange for a one-time fee. The fees generated from advertising, sponsored content, VOD and other portal services are generally subject to revenue sharing arrangements with our airline customers.

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Core products for digital media include the Airtime series of products:
Airtime App: The Airtime App is an innovative application that allows passengers to personalize their IFE directly on their mobile devices.
Airtime Content-to-Go: For a quick go-to-market solution, airlines have the ability to offer a pre-flight download of digital media content using the Airtime Content-to-Go functionality, which requires no onboard hardware. It enables passengers to download content as early as when they book a flight. The content will remain locked until the passenger boards the plane, at which point they will be able to view the content that they purchased.
Airapps: the Air series of apps engage the passenger throughout their pre-flight, as well as during and post-flight travels. Key Air Apps products include Airgames, Airread, Airshop, Airmeal, Airterminals, Aircities, Airhealth and Airnews.
Operations Solutions
In August of 2015, we completed the acquisitions of masFlight and navAero to bolster our products in the rapidly growing data analytics and operational solutions markets for transportation carriers. Our operational solutions products provide significant operational savings for airlines as well as improve overall operating efficiencies. These products are designed to function with both IFC-enabled aircraft and with non-connected aircraft, depending on the airlines’ needs.
GEE’s Operations Solutions’ masFlight platform enables aviation big data analytics for global airlines, airports and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The masFlight platform combines the industry’s most comprehensive and reliable flight operations database, updated in near-real time with global aircraft position data, flight information, airport operations, weather information and other airline, commercial and government data feeds. masFlight is delivered to subscribers through a cloud-based data warehouse, analytics applications, and interfaces that feed on-premises business intelligence platforms. masFlight offers a single source for operations data in real-time, and is utilized by customers for day-of decision-making, competitive benchmarking, and historic data for predictive analytics.
We pioneered the adoption of cloud technology to collect, compile, link, validate and host information sets, and have partnered with name-brand industry and technology providers (including Amazon, FAA, Google, OAG and others) to offer a one-stop solution for aviation analysis and information management, including the following:
Flight operations
Accurate, integrated flight operations data in near real-time to support day-of disruption management, reducing the number of flight cancellations, delays, diversions, and improving operation reliability.
Operations planning
Accurate, integrated, post-operational data to support operations planning, including flight schedule, aircraft maintenance and other resources, resulting in improved overall operational efficiency, cost savings (such as fuel), and an improved passenger experience.
Asset Forensics
Real-time equipment hours & cycles, operational severity assessment, not-to-exceed airfield and enroute performance based on actual weathers, asset contingency planning and risk management, lessees operations due diligence and contract compliance, maintenance tracking and reserve assessment, enhance long-range MRO forecast fidelity and strategic planning precision.
Passenger experience
Accurate, real-time data to improve passenger experience through fewer cancellations and delays, better notification of flight disruptions, smoother connections, and timely response to consumer requests.
Airport operations

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Complete data for airport capacity projections, runway and gate usage, passenger traffic flows, taxi time analytics, concessions planning, passenger notification, and overall airport operations.
GEE’s navAero solution is a leading provider of Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) technology to the global aviation industry. navAero EFB systems (including mounts, power systems and aircraft interface devices) are installed on more than 3,500 aircraft worldwide. In the past two decades, airlines shifted from traditional flight bags (which included manuals, flight information and other resources) to providing information on a small EFB computer. Within the last five years, airlines have increasingly adopted tablet-based EFB devices that are mounted in the cockpit or carried by crew members. navAero has been on the forefront of EFB technology development and systems integration since regulatory guidance documents were first published. We lead the industry in Supplemental Type Certificates (STCs) and have completed complex integration initiatives with leading airlines around the world. We believe our EFB technology solutions are the most robust, reliable and adaptable systems available today.
We believe the navAero tBag™ is the leading EFB system in the industry and provides more built-in connectivity and functionality than any other product offering. The tBag CPU provides the built-in ability to host a wide variety of wireless connectivity for secure wireless data transfer to and from the aircraft.
The navAero Universal Aircraft Interface Device (UAID) provides a complete solution for enhancing EFB system functionality by featuring enhanced features and capabilities when compared to those found in traditional aircraft interface devices. It was designed with robust functionality, broad capabilities and an open architecture to meet the demands requirements for a highly integrated EFB system architecture.
Content
Our Content segment is a leader in the business of selecting, procuring, managing, encoding, and distributing video and music programming, and in providing e-readers and similar applications and games to the in-flight entertainment market. We deliver content compatible with our systems as well as a multitude of third-party IFE systems.
Our Content segment’s operations are primarily focused on:
acquiring IFE licenses for major Hollywood, independent and international film and television productions, and marketing such distribution rights to the airline, maritime and other non-theatrical markets;
making content available for IFE systems and all associated services; and
providing services ranging from the selection, purchase, production and technical adjustment of content to customer support in connection with the integration and servicing of IFE programs.
Content Segment Products and Services
Licensing and Distribution
The business that comprises our Content segment has been providing movies, television programming, games and audio programming as well as technical services for over 30 years. We source a broad range of theatrical and television programs from over 100 worldwide distributors including Warner Bros., NBC Universal, Twentieth Century Fox, CBS, Paramount, the BBC, Discovery, STX, Starz and The Walt Disney Company, as well as smaller international content providers. Our programmers identify content that is relevant and appropriate for each individual airline based on their individual preferences. We tailor movie selections to create the atmosphere deemed appropriate by our individual airline customers.
Technical Services and Digital Production Solutions
Our Content segment addresses a variety of technical needs of airline customers relating to content irrespective of the particular onboard IFE system being used. We provide comprehensive support for a broad-range of traditional, new and emerging technologies. Our technical services which include encoding, editing and meta-data services are performed in-house in our technical facilities in Singapore, India, the United Kingdom and California. These technical facilities also enable us to provide a full range of tailored digital production solutions including corporate videos, safety videos, animated video content, podcasts and broadcast quality radio shows. We maintain a robust global digital network, allowing us to transfer a wide-range of file formats to our customers worldwide in minutes. We also support analog systems for airlines running on older “legacy”

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systems, and can advise on "plug and play" replacement hardware to assist our airline customers in implementing more cost effective IFE hardware solutions. We can adapt content and databases to be compatible with a broad-range of devices and delivery methods, including tablets, streaming video, iOS, Android and others. We have also negotiated licensing agreements with both domestic and international rights holders for the use of materials on portable electronic devices.
Graphical User Interfaces
Our Content services also include the development of graphical user interfaces for a variety of IFE applications, database management related to the overall management of IFE and both the technical integration of content and the operation of the varied content management systems found on commercial aircraft across the globe.
Software and Gaming
With over 150 airline customers for content and a catalog of over 150 game titles as of December 31, 2015, we believe we have the largest market share in international in-flight gaming content. Our creative teams work to produce casual games customized to suit the in-flight environment. We also acquire multi-year licenses from reputable game publishers to adapt third party branded games and concepts for in-flight use from partners such as Disney, EA, Popcap, Rovio, Tetris, Namco Bandai, DK and Berlitz. Our Content services include cultural expertise to adapt the software we deliver to the language and cultural specificities of each airline customer's passenger demographics. In addition, our Content business develops software applications for the next generation of IFE systems, including interactive electronic menus and magazines.
Other Intellectual Property
We recently filed various trademarks or service marks applications related to certain ancillary products we intend to offer under the “Air” brand, including, “AIRSHOP”, “AIRREAD”, “AIRMEAL”, “AIRDRIVE”, “AIRTUNES” AND “AIRVIEW”. We may use these marks or substitute marks for such products.
Customers
We currently deploy our Connectivity services worldwide to the airline industry, with customers and flights located in North America, the Caribbean, Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe. We are currently in trials to install our Connectivity solution on aircraft operated by Air China and Air France, and recently expanded our current trail with Air China to include a Boeing 737 aircraft. For fiscal year 2015, our largest Connectivity airline customer was Southwest Airlines, which represented approximately 23% of our total consolidated revenue in 2015. We also deploy our Operations Solutions products to numerous airlines throughout the world.
We provide Content curating and processing services to the airline, maritime, and non-theatrical industries globally. We have over 150 airlines using our content solutions worldwide. Our customers also include major Hollywood and international studios. As of December 31, 2015, we were the exclusive representative to many airlines for our Content services.
Competitive Advantages
  We are developers, acquirers and exclusive distributors of satellite bandwidth entertainment, gaming and other media content and work closely with major and independent studios and other content producers. Accordingly, our significant operating and deal-making experience and relationships with companies in these industries gives us a number of competitive advantages and may present us with a substantial number of additional business targets and relationships to facilitate growth going forward. We believe that we have sustainable competitive advantages due to our market positions, technology and relationships with important content suppliers and airlines.
  Connectivity
Our satellite-based broadband services allow us to connect airline passengers to the Internet and deliver live streaming television, stored content on demand and other related services over land and sea.  Unlike certain competitive technologies, our satellite Wi-Fi platform is capable of being operated gate-to-gate and over the majority of the commonly used air routes across the globe at data throughput levels required to deliver a feature-rich IFE experience.  We also have a relationship with Hughes, a long-term agreement with SES and have network operational footprints worldwide. These competitive advantages provide us the ability to more rapidly on-board and service new and existing airline customers regardless of where they fly.

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In addition to regional expansion, we have the ability to rapidly expand our product offerings worldwide. We launched our live television and our texting services in the United States and now offer similar and other related services in additional markets, including Europe and the Middle East.  We also have programs in place offering gate-to-gate connectivity services in markets where this service is permitted. Targeting heavily air-trafficked regions allows us to leverage existing customers and add additional airline customers with little interruption to our base operations.  Adding customers in areas with existing satellite coverage (utilized for launch customers) allows us to spread fixed costs associated with transponders over a larger network base.
We have dedicated Connectivity engineering resources, which enable us to deploy end-to-end solutions for our airline customers.  Our engineering resources are able to assist our airline customers in obtaining necessary regulatory approvals such as the STCs, which permit our equipment to be installed and operated on the applicable aircraft type covered by the STC (regardless of airline operator).  As we continue to obtain STCs on a wider variety of plane types, we will be able to leverage these STCs for more rapid deployment on new airline customers in the future on a more cost-effective and efficient basis.
Our Network Operating Center (NOC) is based in Lombard, Illinois, located nearby Chicago’s O’Hare and Midway airports. The NOC manages our 24/7 satellite and network operations and monitors each plane both as it flies and while it is on the ground. We recently expanded our NOC facilities to manage our growing fleet of connected aircraft and to continue driving new innovations for our IFC system and offerings.
In 2015, we obtained line-fit installation with The Boeing Company (“Boeing”) on the Boeing 737MAX and are working closely with Boeing to obtain line-fit offerability on its 787 aircraft.
Content 
We are the leader in providing content and services to airlines around the world and across all continents. Our cultural expertise allows us to provide customized solutions to accommodate cultural and linguistic requirements in all key markets, across all airlines.  We provide our content services to the vast majority of airlines in markets such as the Middle East, Asia and Europe, where demand for content tends to be stronger and airlines are more widely equipped with on-board IFE solutions. North American airlines had traditionally focused less on on-board IFE solutions, but have recently increased their investments and are shifting towards providing a wider variety of IFE content on-board their aircraft. More recently, we broadened our portfolio of content services by becoming a solution provider for advanced, interactive IFE hardware systems. The new IFE hardware systems provide the technological basis for turning the systems previously used only for the purpose of entertaining passengers into interactive passenger platforms that offer a variety of possibilities. In the IFE industry, this strategic development entails changing IFE into a total ‘‘passenger experience.’’ We intend to leverage our market position and technological know-how to participate in and take advantage of this cutting-edge development in IFE.
With the ability to offer the widest variety of content, games and related services, we provide our customers a wider variety of content options and more cost-effective content solutions. 
Our Strategy
We believe that our combined Content and Connectivity offering is uniquely positioned to change the existing IFE content model and drive towards a synergized entertainment and commerce platform. Using portals created specifically for the in-flight audience, we provide Internet access, content-on-demand, and live television programming. Providing this rich content direct to passengers’ own devices has created new opportunities for revenue from passengers on our customer airlines and from brand sponsorship. In addition, through recent acquisitions we have added Operations Solutions capabilities, providing airlines with greater insight into their operations to drive cost efficiencies and improve the passenger experience.
Connectivity
 We are seeking to aggressively to expand our connectivity solutions to customers worldwide, particularly outside of North America. We are strategically targeting markets with high populations and traffic density, having begun with North America and Europe, and more recently in the Middle East and Asia.  Particularly in China, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, India and South America, we are seeking to gain early-entrant advantage with our satellite-based connectivity solutions.
Leverage Technology
 We believe we have the most technologically advanced connectivity solution in the market today, and plan to continue to leverage this as we target expansion in new and emerging markets. The lack of a comparable connectivity solution in the

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market today creates a large opportunity for us, particularly with carriers who fly across international borders. With a proven connectivity solution in the US and Europe, we can continue to leverage our existing technology to expand our connectivity solutions globally, and capture market share in emerging markets such as Western Europe, Latin America, China, India and the Middle East. 
Continue Technological Evolution
 We work continuously to improve existing systems and user interfaces, while also developing plans to remain at the forefront of the technology curve. We also expect to continue to develop better-performing components of our system, including components to better service long-haul carriers.  Our strategic decision to develop key components and systems that interface with handheld devices enable our airline customers to stay on the cutting edge without completely replacing or having to invest in on-board entertainment systems.
In October 2015, we entered into a new agreement with Hughes to utilize Hughes' JUPITER™ System HT Aero Modem to power GEE's next-generation, high-performance broadband aeronautical service. Hughes' HT Aero Modem, including the core router module and JUPITER mobility technology, features the JUPITER System second-generation SoC (System on a chip) that supports over 200 Mbps of throughput, readily accommodating the highest demands for aeronautical broadband. Compared to Hughes' prior-generation mobility terminal, the new HT modem delivers over a 10 times increase in throughput performance to an individual aircraft. Designed for the aviation broadband industry, the HT Aero Modem technology also provides faster spot beam and satellite switchover times. The modem is DO160 compliant and is compatible with our current antenna system, enabling easy and cost-effective upgrade to improve speeds for GEE's current connected fleet.
In February 2015, we announced an agreement to jointly develop a new in-flight connectivity antenna with QEST Quantenelektronische Systeme GmbH, a leading developer of high performance antenna systems. The new global antenna will provide airlines with a high-speed in-flight connectivity solution that operates reliably at all latitudes, including in equatorial regions, where Ku and/or Ku HTS coverage is available.
On October 24, 2014, we entered into an agreement with SES for the purchase of Ku-band and Ku-band High Throughput Satellite capacity on SES’s fleet of current satellites and three new satellites SES expects to begin launching in early 2017.
Content
Supply-Chain Efficiency
We have attained critical mass in the IFE content market that will open up the possibilities of managing larger airline budgets, as well as providing a fully outsourced solution to our customers. We believe that this will lead to longer-term contracts and a wider variety of services. We have demonstrated this with multiple new contracts awarded for more than five years and covering creative user interfaces and innovation as well as traditional content. The scale we now have in our post-production facilities and range in content rights management allows for a more efficient cost structure and to begin servicing newer, smaller and more remote airlines customers.
Increasing the Value of Traditional Content
We are the leading provider of IFE content and solutions to the airline industry. With a broad range of content solutions, we offer unparalleled services to our airline customers, as well as the ability to provide them with more cost-effective and outsourced solutions. Our ability to efficiently scale our post-production facilities and provide a range of content rights management to our customers is unmatched by our competitors. We believe that this will lead to expanded services with existing customers, and allow us to more rapidly expand our services to newer, smaller and more remote airlines customers.
Competition
Our Connectivity operating segment operates in a highly competitive environment. In addition to competition from other in-flight connectivity providers such as GoGo, Inmarsat, OnAir and ViaSat, we also compete with other IFE service providers such as Panasonic Avionics and Thales. Other connectivity service providers use different technology, including air-to-ground mobile services, L-band satellite connectivity and Ka-band satellite connectivity, to provide connectivity to airlines as opposed to Panasonic Avionics, and to some extent Gogo, which uses the Ku-band for connectivity services. We believe Ku-band satellite services, and the introduction of Ku-HTS in the coming years, offer a competitive combination of worldwide availability, available high-speed bandwidth and cost versus competing technologies. In addition, our connectivity solutions are

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focused on delivering the best passenger experience, and provide a significant value difference when compared to existing solutions offered by our competition.
Our Content operating segment operates in a highly fragmented market. As of December 31, 2015, our combined Content operations service the majority of the content market for the worldwide airline industry. In addition to the overall fragmented market for our content and related services, we compete with other IFES leading providers including Spafax. We believe our state-of-the-art studio services offer unparalleled solutions to our airline and studio partners versus our competitors. In addition, we believe that our worldwide relationships with major airline carriers and Hollywood studios provide us a significant competitive advantage over our competition.
Government Regulation
As a participant in the global airline and global telecommunication industries we are subject to a variety of government regulatory obligations.
Federal Aviation Administration/European Aviation Safety Agency
Our Connectivity division’s primary product involves the installation of material hardware onboard commercial airliners. The installation of equipment on airliners is subject to the rules and regulations promulgated by the Federal Aviation Administration ("FAA") and its global counterparts, including the European Aviation Safety Agency ("EASA"). Prior to installing our equipment on an aircraft type, we are required to obtain a STC, which supplements the original Type Certificate obtained by the original aircraft manufacturer from the FAA/EASA and identifies the parts to be installed and the location of the installation and will only be issued by the FAA/EASA after we comply with any additional regulations for the installation of hardware such as ours (for example, bird strike regulation compliance). To date, we have obtained STCs for installing our connectivity solution hardware on the Boeing 737 Next Generation series of aircraft and the Boeing 757 and 777 aircraft types. We currently have additional STC projects underway and expect to obtain additional STCs throughout 2014.
Global AMSS Regulation
In order to operate our connectivity services, we are also required to obtain authorization in each jurisdiction over which we intend to provide our aero mobile satellite services (AMSS). In the USA, we obtained a license from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allowing us to provide AMSS services subject to compliance with various requirements imposed by the FCC. Certain other countries require affirmative licenses, however many countries require notification of intent to provide services and various technical details without the need for obtaining affirmative approval. To-date we are authorized to provide our AMSS connectivity services in over 150 countries.
Employees
As of December 31, 2015 , we had approximately 1,000 employees, with approximately one-third employed in the United States. None of our employees are represented by a labor union or is subject to a collective bargaining agreement. We believe that relations with our employees are good.
Segment Reporting and Geographic Information
For additional information regarding our segments, including information about our financial results by geography, see Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 2. Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies to our consolidated financial statements included in Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules.
Corporate History
Prior to January 31, 2013, we were known as Global Eagle Acquisition Corp., a Delaware corporation that was formed in February 2011 to effect a merger, capital stock exchange, asset acquisition or similar business combination with one or more businesses. In May 2011, we consummated an initial public offering. On January 31, 2013, we completed a business combination transaction (the "Business Combination") in which we acquired all of the outstanding capital stock of Row 44, Inc. ("Row 44") and 86% of the shares of Advanced Inflight Alliance AG ("AIA"), and changed our name to Global Eagle Entertainment Inc. Prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, we did not engage in any business except for activities related to our formation and related public financing.

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Subsequent to the Business Combination, we acquired an additional approximately 8% of the shares of AIA in 2013, and the remaining 6% of the shares of AIA in April 2014 such that as of December 31, 2014, we owned 100% of the shares of AIA. Prior to April 2014, the shares of AIA's capital stock not owned by us were listed in the Regulated Market ("General Standard") of the Frankfurt Stock Exchange.
Our principal executive offices are located at 4553 Glencoe Avenue, Marina del Rey, California, 90292.
Available Information
Our main corporate website address is www.geemedia.com. Copies of the Company’s Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Annual Report on Form 10-K and Current Reports on Form 8-K filed or furnished to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), and any amendments to the foregoing, will be provided without charge to any shareholder submitting a written request to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Company or by calling (310) 437-6000. All of the Company’s SEC filings are also available on the Company’s website at http://investors.geemedia.com/sec.cfm , as soon as reasonably practicable after having been electronically filed or furnished to the SEC. All SEC filings are also available at the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
We also webcast our earnings calls and certain events we participate in or host with members of the investment community on the investor relations section of our corporate website. Additionally, we provide notifications of news or announcements regarding our financial performance, including SEC filings, investor events, and press and earnings releases on the investor relations section of our corporate website. Investors can receive notifications of new press releases and SEC filings by signing up for email alerts on our website. Further corporate governance information, including our board committee charters and code of ethics, is also available on our website at http://investors.geemedia.com/corporate-governance.cfm. The information included on our website, or any of the websites of entities that we are affiliated with, is not incorporated by reference into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or in any other report or document we file with the SEC, and any references to our website are intended to be inactive textual references only.

ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves substantial risks. In addition to the other information included in this Annual Report, the following risk factors should be considered in evaluating our business and future prospects. The risk factors described below are not necessarily exhaustive. You should also read the other information included in this Annual Report, including our financial statements and the related notes and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation”.
Risks Related to Our Connectivity Segment
We rely on one key customer for a substantial percentage of our Connectivity segment’s revenue.

Our Connectivity segment is substantially dependent on its customer relationship with Southwest Airlines, which accounted for 85% , 83% and 72% of our Connectivity segment’s revenue for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively, and 23% of our consolidated revenue for the year ended December 31, 2015. Our existing agreement with Southwest Airlines governs our supply of products and services to Southwest Airlines, including our broadband equipment, Wi-Fi service in connection with the use of our broadband system, live television related services and certain additional contemplated services. In addition, a significant source of our revenue and operating income is generated from our television service with Southwest Airlines. See the risk factor below entitled “ We may be unsuccessful in generating revenue from live television, portal and content-on-demand services. If we fail to maintain certain minimum service level requirements related to our television service with Southwest Airlines, Southwest Airlines may terminate our agreement to provide them with such service. Similarly, if we fail to meet other obligations related to our technology, equipment or services, Southwest Airlines may have the right to terminate our agreement to provide them with such equipment or services. Our business would be materially adversely affected if Southwest Airlines terminates the television service or our agreement to provide them with equipment and services.

Our ability to maintain our Connectivity segment’s revenue is largely dependent upon maintaining our existing relationships and agreements with two key customers.

For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, the vast majority of our Connectivity equipment and service revenue was generated by two airlines, Southwest Airlines and Norwegian Air Shuttle. There is no guarantee that these airlines will continue to maintain the same levels of historical fleet installation growth and services with us. If we are unable to

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maintain our existing relationships and agreements with Southwest Airlines and Norwegian Air Shuttle, our business could be materially adversely affected.

We face increased demand for greater bandwidth, speed and performance from customers in an increasingly competitive environment featuring new technologies and market entrants, which may require us to significantly invest in improving our Connectivity solution.

Competition among providers of connectivity solutions, including satellite providers who can leverage their own gateways and satellite constellations to provide connectivity solutions directly to customers, may impact prices received for services. Moreover, if demand for greater bandwidth, Internet streaming, speed and performance of our network increases, it may force us to expend substantial financial and other resources in investing in future satellite transponder capacity and network infrastructure, and to improve our overall satellite-based and related technologies to ensure that we meet such demands from our current and future customers. The costs of obtaining current and future satellite capacity may also be impacted by limitations in global satellite capacity. Conversely, this also represents an opportunity for us to leverage our existing platform, including our Content services offerings, to further develop and deploy more cost-effective connectivity solutions to meet increased demand for bandwidth and streaming services for our customers. Should increased demand for greater bandwidth, speed and performance from customers continue to increase beyond our current capabilities, coupled with an increasingly competitive environment featuring new technologies and direct satellite providers, we may required to significantly invest in improving our Connectivity solution in the future.
Our Connectivity industry has a limited operating history, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future performance.

We completed the first installation of our in-flight connectivity system in 2009 and began generating service revenue in 2010. As of today, we have over 700 planes installed with our Connectivity services. In the United States and rest of the world, we estimate that approximately half and less than 15%, respectively, of our addressable airline market is utilizing some form of satellite based Wi-Fi connectivity services on their planes. While there is a large opportunity in the near and long term to grow our installed-base of planes, our future growth is largely dependent upon airlines, particularly those located outside of the United States, adopting our connectivity services such as ours with limited operating history of doing so. This limited operating history of our Connectivity industry may make it difficult to accurately evaluate our potential growth and future performance, and the growth of our Connectivity segment since inception is not necessarily indicative of potential future growth. Any assessments of our Connectivity segment and predictions that we make about future success or viability may not be accurate. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by companies growing in rapidly changing industries, and the size and nature of our market opportunity will change as we scale our business and increase deployments of our in-flight connectivity system.
Our product development costs may increase materially in connection with our efforts to grow our Connectivity segment’s business and remain competitive in the future.

Historically, we have incurred significant product development expenses to support the growth of our Connectivity services and offerings. We also expect our Connectivity segment’s costs to fluctuate materially in future periods as we continue to invest resources in further product development efforts, such as our line-fit initiative with Boeing, new antenna development with QEST, expanding our satellite-based services and capabilities, new Airtime IFE product offering and investments in future Ku-HTS technologies and new capital investments in Connectivity equipment, for new and existing customers and services, which could negatively affect our future operating results. We expect to continue to expend substantial financial and other resources as we continue to grow our Connectivity segment, and increase our investments in satellite-based technologies and our product offering. The amount and timing of these costs are subject to numerous variables, including the availability and timing of certain next-generation technologies, such as Ku-HTS and other satellite technologies, timing of our connectivity system becoming line-fit on various Boeing aircraft types and with other major aircraft manufacturers, as well as the need and related costs to develop and implement changes to our software and hardware, the need and related costs to expand our service offerings to be competitive and, with respect to satellite technologies, the need and related costs of obtaining current and future satellite capacity.
We face limitations on our ability to grow our domestic Connectivity segment operations, which could harm our operating results and financial condition.

Our ability to expand our Connectivity segment domestically at its current rate of growth is inherently limited by various factors, including the limited number of U.S. and foreign commercial airlines operating over our domestic coverage area and who have not already selected a connectivity partner or are otherwise available to sell our products and service, the number of

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planes operated by our current domestic customer which have not yet been connected and in which our connectivity system can be installed and the passenger capacity within each plane. The growth of our Connectivity segment may slow when compared to more recent results, to the extent that we have exhausted all substantial potential airline customers, and as we approach installation on full fleets and maximum penetration rates on all flights. We cannot provide assurance that we will be able to profitably expand the domestic market presence or establish new markets and, if we fail to do so, our business and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

We may be unsuccessful in maintaining or growing our revenue from live television, portal and content-on-demand services.

We continue to develop and deploy a number of service offerings to deliver to our commercial airline customers.

Live Television

We currently offer up to 20 channels of live television service in the United States, and several channels internationally, and we recently expanded our live television service to our airline customers in Europe and the Middle East, although there can be no assurance that we will be successful in doing so or in generating meaningful revenue from that source of content abroad. In the U.S., our customer Southwest Airlines offers free live television on its aircraft, advertised as “TV Flies Free.” The failure of Southwest Airlines to continue to offer TV Flies Free could have a material adverse impact on our Connectivity segment’s revenue, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, if we are unable to replicate the live television model with other airlines, or the take rate for a passenger fee-based live television model does not meet expected targets, our Connectivity segment’s ability to generate revenue growth in the future could be materially adversely affected.
Portal Services

Throughout 2015, we deployed several advertising based portal services, a moving map with flight information and restore Wi-Fi Internet-based texting service onboard Southwest Airlines aircraft. We also intend to further develop and deploy additional Wi-Fi Internet portal services, which we believe will provide our Connectivity segment a substantial revenue opportunity in the near term. We cannot make any assurance that we will be successful in developing and deploying portal services in the future, maintaining current Wi-Fi portal services or that our ability to generate revenue from these services will match our expectations. If our portal services are not successful, our growth and financial prospects could be materially adversely impacted.

Content-on-demand

Separate from our content-on-demand offering as part of our live television services, we are also working to increase the number of on-demand movies and other content available on our Wi-Fi Internet connectivity system. The future growth prospects for our business depend, in part, on revenue from advertising fees and e-commerce revenue share arrangements on passenger purchases of goods and services, including video and media services. Our ability to generate revenue from these service offerings depends on the:

growth of our Connectivity segment’s commercial airline customer base;
attractiveness of our Connectivity segment’s customer base to media partners;
deployment of live television and content-on-demand on more aircraft and with additional airline customers and increasing passenger adoption both in the U.S. and abroad;
establishment and maintenance of beneficial contractual relationships with media partners whose content, products and services are attractive to airline passengers; and,
ability to customize and improve our Connectivity segment’s service offerings in response to trends and customer interests.

If we are unsuccessful in generating revenue from our Connectivity segment’s service offerings, that failure could have a material adverse effect on our growth prospects, financial condition and results of operation.
We plan to make increased investments in equipment for our customers in the future

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During the year ended December 31, 2015, we invested $2.7 million in equipment leases. In 2016, we plan to increase our investments in customer equipment to continue to grow our connectivity segment. Equipment investments typically involve upfront financial incentives on the pricing of our connectivity equipment, including certain installation costs, in exchange for a higher portion of future customers’ connectivity service revenue. Should our share of such future service revenue not be sufficient to cover or exceed our upfront equipment investments, we may incur significant costs that may not be immediately recoverable or recoverable at all.
We may be unsuccessful in expanding our Connectivity segment internationally, which could harm the growth of our business, operating results and financial conditions.

Our ability to expand our Connectivity segment internationally involves various risks, including the need to invest significant resources in unfamiliar markets and the possibility that there may not be returns on these investments in the near future, comparable to our recent financial results or at all. Throughout 2014 and 2015, we began international connectivity trials with Air China and Air France, and more recently began deploying our Airconnect system in the Middle East, with flydubai and in India, with Jet Airways. There is no assurance that these will result in a long-term profitable relationship with these customers. Additionally, and in connection with our agreement to equip flydubai’s aircraft with our Airconnect system, we are making investments in our Airconnect installations and equipment with improved economics for us on future connectivity services over the term of the agreement. As a result, we will incur significant upfront investments in 2016 that may not be immediately recoverable or recoverable at all if our future services do not perform to our forecasted expectations. Our Connectivity segment’s ability to expand will also be limited by the demand for in-flight broadband Internet access in key international markets. Different privacy, censorship, aerospace and liability standards and regulations, governmental instability and political change and different intellectual property laws and enforcement practices in foreign countries may cause our business and operating results to suffer. Additionally, any failure to compete successfully in international markets could negatively impact our reputation and domestic operations.

Any future international operations, including our planned expansion into China and continued expansion into other emerging markets, may be unsuccessful due to risks inherent in foreign operations, including:

different technological solutions for broadband Internet than those used in North America;
varied, unfamiliar and unclear legal and regulatory restrictions;
unexpected changes in international regulatory requirements and tariffs;
unexpected changes in governmental or political structures in certain foreign countries;
legal, political or systemic restrictions on the ability of U.S. companies to do business in foreign countries, including restrictions on foreign ownership of telecommunications providers or the establishment of economic sanctions by the U.S. affecting businesses such as ours;
inability to find content or service providers to partner with on commercially reasonable terms, or at all;
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act compliance and related risks;
difficulties in staffing and managing foreign operations;
currency fluctuations;
ongoing instability or changes in a country’s or region’s economic or political conditions, including inflation, recession, interest rate fluctuations and actual or anticipated military or political conflicts;
longer collection cycles and financial instability among customers; and
potential adverse tax consequences.
As a result of these obstacles, we may find it difficult or prohibitively expensive to grow our Connectivity segment internationally or may be unsuccessful in our attempt to do so, which could harm our future operating results and financial condition.


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We are currently engaged in trials of our Connectivity solution on two aircraft operated by Air China and two aircraft operated by Air France in connection with each airline’s choice of a connectivity provider. Failure to win Air China or Air France as a client could have an adverse impact on our plans to expand our services into China and throughout Europe.
 
We are currently under trial to install our Connectivity solution on aircrafts operated by Air China and Air France. The Air China trial commenced aboard a 777-200 aircraft in the second half of 2014, and will enable Air China’s passengers to access the Internet and stored content on approved handheld devices, in accordance with applicable Chinese regulations. Further, in early 2016 we received an additional trial order from Air China for one of its 737NG aircraft. In addition, we also commenced a connectivity trial in partnership with telecommunications provider Orange on board two Air France aircraft in early 2016. An expansion of our business into China will require us to comply with a number of foreign laws, rules and regulations with which we have limited prior experience. Our management team’s lack of experience with these new requirements could increase the likelihood that we will inadvertently violate such a requirement, which could divert more of our resources and negatively impact our business. We cannot assure you that the trials with either Air China or Air France will be successful, which could mean that the costs incurred and resources expended in connection with these trials may not yield the expansion of our business that we have anticipated. Even if the trials with Air China and Air France are successful, we may not realize the benefits of the trial if we are unable to expand our business in China and Europe beyond the test aircraft. We cannot assure you that this expansion will generate additional revenues or increase our profitability. Even if this expansion generates the benefits that we have anticipated, there may be other unforeseeable and unintended factors or consequences that occur as a result of the expansion, which could adversely impact our profitability and our business.

We rely on single service providers for certain critical components of, and services relating to, our satellite connectivity network.

We currently source key components of our hardware and key aspects of our connectivity services from sole providers of equipment and network services, respectively, including the satellite antenna sourced from TECOM Industries, Inc., or TECOM, and substantially all of our Connectivity segment’s satellite modems from Hughes Network Systems, LLC, or HNS. In addition, we announced in 2015 a new hardware satellite product development project with QEST, and a new satellite agreement with SES. While we have contracts in effect with these key component and service providers, if we experience a disruption in the delivery of products and services from any of these providers, it may be difficult for us to continue providing our own products and services to our customers. We have experienced component delivery issues in the past, and there can be no assurance that we will avoid similar issues in the future. Additionally, any loss of favored nation relationships that we have with our hardware providers today could eliminate our competitive advantage in the use of satellites for in-flight connectivity in the future, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and operations.

We may be unsuccessful or delayed in developing and deploying new global antenna technologies.

In the first quarter of 2015, we entered into a long-term development project with QEST to develop new global antenna technologies, which is expected to be available in the second half of 2016. In connection therewith, we have made and continue to make significant product development investments to our existing connectivity technology solutions to address these new technologies. Since our new global antenna technologies are currently in the development stage and have yet to be deployed for commercial use, there can be no assurance that such technologies will perform as expected or be commercially available on our current timeline, if at all, due to, among other things, the failure of the technologies to perform as expected, problems arising in the development process, and delays in obtaining or failures to obtain the required regulatory approvals to deploy and operate such technologies. If the technologies fail to perform as expected or their commercial availability is significantly delayed, our business, business prospects and results of operations may be materially adversely affected.

We depend upon third parties to manufacture our Connectivity segment’s equipment components and to provide services for our network.

We rely on third-party suppliers for equipment components that we use to provide our connectivity services. The supply of third party components could be interrupted or halted by a termination of these relationships, a failure of quality control or other operational problems at such suppliers or a significant decline in their financial condition. If we are not able to continue to engage suppliers with the capabilities or capacities required by our Connectivity segment, or if such suppliers fail to deliver quality products, parts, equipment and services on a timely basis consistent with our schedule, our business prospects, financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

Our new Operations Solutions business may present new challenges to our business and subject us to additional risks.


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The acquisitions of masFlight and navAero form the foundation of our new Operations Solutions business line. While masFlight and navAero have historically been leaders in operational data analytics and cockpit data solutions, we may encounter additional challenges we have not previously faced that are particular to the provision of business intelligence, data analytics and real-time operational management, including:

Continued availability and reliability of data sources utilized in our platform, including radar, aircraft, flight and schedule information provided by government agencies, commercial publishers, global distribution systems, and individual airlines;
Continued availability and reliability of third-party cloud services and data hosting companies, including Amazon Web Services and Google Cloud Services. Substantially all of masFlight’s customer-facing solutions are operated from the Amazon Web Services environment. An extended disruption in the availability of Amazon Web Services resources may impact our ability to deliver contracted services to our customers;
New competition related to data aggregation, cloud data warehousing, benchmarking, analytics, business intelligence, flight operations management, schedule planning, cockpit EFB software and aircraft interface devices;
Reliance on commercial partners and third parties for the transmission of aircraft-generated data to ground-based information systems and computer networks;
Changes to government regulations related to the segregation and security of sensitive air-traffic management data, real-time and historical aircraft position information including VIP movements, avionics data and other aircraft information generated during flight, and other safety-sensitive data sources.
We may incur unanticipated expenses, fail to realize anticipated benefits, and expend a significant amount of management’s time and resources in incorporating and managing this new business line.

Our entry into new business lines may not be successful.

We recently commenced new business lines related to business aviation and advertising. While we plan to leverage our offerings and expertise in the commercial airline industry and utilize partners in the business aviation industry to provide solutions for business jet passengers and pilots, there is no guarantee that we will be able to successfully penetrate the business aviation market or that such endeavor will be profitable. Similarly, no assurance can be made that we will be successful in our efforts to grow our advertising business. If our entry into one or both of these new business lines is not successful, we may not be able to recover the resources we expend on these endeavors and it could have an adverse effect on how our other products and services are perceived.


Risks Related to Our Content Segment

The portion of our Content segment that is based on applications as part of in-flight entertainment has a limited operating history, which may make it difficult to evaluate our current business and predict our future performance.

We have developed applications to be used on more sophisticated in-flight entertainment hardware platforms as well as a wireless streaming solution to be used on planes without in-flight entertainment hardware. Our applications and wireless streaming solution are still in development phases and have limited operating histories. This makes it difficult for us to accurately evaluate the potential growth and future performance of the applications and wireless solution. Any assessments of our applications and wireless solution and predictions that we make about future success or viability may not be accurate. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by companies expanding in new product development areas in rapidly changing industries, and the size and nature of our market opportunity will change as we scale our applications and wireless streaming solution.

We may not accurately predict the profit margins of our Content segment with respect to its long-term fixed price contracts.

In some cases our Content segment has entered into multi-year, fixed-price delivery contracts with certain studios. These procurement contracts enable us to purchase content from certain studios during the respective terms of the contracts at a fixed purchase price, or through “flat deals”. Adjustments of the previously agreed upon purchase price might be necessary in certain circumstances if there are significant changes the customer demand or content supply during the term of a given contract. If we

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are unable to make such adjustments accordingly, or if there is a shift in the customer base under such contracts, then there is a risk that the profit margins on our flat fee agreements may be smaller than predicted or even a loss, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operations.

Our Content segment is subject to ongoing tax audits that could result in additional tax payments or a reduction in tax loss carryforwards.

A comprehensive tax audit by the Canadian tax authorities of our Canadian subsidiary DTI Software for the tax years 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 is ongoing. More specifically, the Canadian tax authorities are currently investigating DTI’s tax status in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and whether income derived in Dubai should have been constituted taxable earnings subject to Canadian income tax for the tax years ended December 31, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011. We estimate the maximum Canadian income tax exposure for the taxable years 2008 through 2011 is approximately $3.6 million , including potential interest and penalties. We are currently investigating these claims and are not able to estimate the aggregate potential tax liability that could result for subsequent tax years after 2011. If the Canadian tax authorities attempt to assess similar penalties for tax years subsequent to 2011, we may be subject to significant historical tax obligations, including penalties and accrued interest. In addition, DTI claims certain tax credits in the course of the development of games and applications in Canada including tax credits that support multimedia, e-commerce and research and development in Canada. It is possible that Canadian tax authorities might come to a different conclusion concerning the respective amounts that DTI is able to claim. This could lead to an adjustment of the booked tax credits that could be material to our financial condition.

Our Content segment currently make claims for investment tax credits that are available in Canada to support multimedia, e-commerce and research and development in Canada, and any reduction in or elimination of government support for such tax credits would negatively impact our business and results of operations.

DTI Software makes claims for currently available tax credits in Canada in the course of its development of games and applications in Canada, including tax credits that support multimedia, e-commerce and research and development in Canada. If governmental authorities in Canada, and, in particular, in the province of Quebec, were to reduce or eliminate the amount of tax credits that are available in respect of these activities by DTI, then our tax liabilities would likely increase, and our overall profitability would be negatively impacted.

On-board use of personal electronic devices may harm our Content segment.

Ever-increasing numbers of passengers have their own personal electronic devices which they might use to bring their own content such as movies, music or games with them on a flight or to access on-board connectivity to the Internet, live television or content on demand. This could decrease demand for our Content segment’s in-flight offerings provided through seatback screens or other fixed on-board screens, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operation.

Many of our Content segment’s products have long sales cycles, which may cause us to expend resources without an acceptable financial return and which makes it difficult to plan our expenses and forecast our revenue. This could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Many of our Content segment’s products have long sales cycles that involve numerous steps, including initial customer contacts, specification writing, software engineering design, software prototyping, pilot testing, device certification, regulatory approvals (if needed), sales and marketing and commercial manufacture, integration and delivery. During this time, we may expend substantial financial resources and management time and effort without any assurance that product sales will result. The anticipated long sales cycle for some of our Content segment’s products makes it difficult to predict the quarter in which sales may occur. Delays in sales may cause us to expend resources without an acceptable financial return and make it difficult to plan expenses and forecast revenue, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.

Our Content segment may not retain or attract customers if we do not develop new products and enhance our current products in response to technological changes and competing products, or if our new or enhanced products do not gain market acceptance.

The in-flight entertainment market is faced with rapid technological change, evolving standards in computer hardware, software development, communications and security infrastructure, and changing needs and expectations of customers. Building new products and service offerings requires significant investment in development. A substantial portion of our Content segment’s research and development resources are devoted to maintenance requirements and product upgrades that address new technology support. These demands put significant constraints on the resources that we have available for new

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product development. We also face uncertainty when we develop or acquire new products for our Content segment, because there is no assurance that a sufficient market will develop for those products.

We are exposed to foreign currency risks, and our lack of a formal hedging strategy could create losses.

Within our Content segment, currency risks arise from the fact that both sales to customers and purchasing are largely transacted in U.S. dollars, while most of our Content segment’s operating companies’ fixed costs are incurred in local currencies such as euros, British pounds, Indian rupees and Canadian dollars. Historically, we have engaged from time to time in hedging transactions to counteract direct currency risks. However, we do not have a formal hedging strategy, and cannot guarantee that all currency risks have been or will be hedged in full. Severe currency fluctuations could also cause the hedging transactions to fail if agreed thresholds (triggers) are not met or exceeded. We therefore cannot preclude negative foreign currency effects in the future−some of which may be substantial−due to unforeseen exchange rate fluctuations and/or inaccurate assessments of market developments.

There are also intragroup receivables and liabilities in our Content segment, such as loans, that can generate significant foreign currency effects. Changes in the exchange rates of a number of foreign currencies against the euro, especially the U.S. dollar and the Canadian dollar, could lead to the recognition of unrealized foreign exchange losses in some cases, particularly as a result of intragroup transactions. Therefore, our Content segment is exposed to a heightened currency risk in connection with intragroup borrowing owing to the foreign currency sensitivity exchange rate movements that are difficult to predict.

Our Content segment faces intense pricing pressure.

Due to our scale and market position, we have historically been able to offer competitive pricing compared to our competitors. However, pricing pressures from both our customers and studios continue to be high. We cannot assure you that we can maintain our historical pricing efficiencies, and we may need to provide price concessions in order to acquire new customers or retain current customers. This may have a negative adverse effect on our revenue, profit, financial trends and results of operations.

We source our content from studios, distributors and other content providers, and any reduction in the volume or quality of content produced by such content providers could hurt our Content segment by providing it with less quality content to choose from and resulting in potentially less attractive offerings for passengers.

We receive content from studios, distributors and other content providers, and, in some circumstances, we depend on the volume and quality of the content that these content providers produce. If studios, distributors or other content providers were to reduce the volume or quality of content that they make available to us over any given time period, whether because of their own financial limitations or other factors influencing their businesses, we would have less quality content to choose from, and our programmers would have more difficulty finding relevant and appropriate content to provide to our customers. This could negatively impact the passenger experience, which could, in turn, reduce the demand for our Content segment’s offerings, which would have a negative impact on our revenue and results of operations.

Our revenue may be adversely affected by a reduction or elimination of the time between our receipt of content and the content being made more broadly publicly available to the rental or home viewing market.

We receive the content that we provide through our Content segment directly from studios, distributors and other content providers, and the timing is at the discretion of the content providers. Historically, we received content prior to such content being more broadly publicly distributed via rental viewing, retail stores or Internet streaming services. If a content provider delays release of certain content in a manner reducing or eliminating this “early window,” our Content segment may not be able to generate as much revenue from such content as we could have generated with an earlier release date.

The revenue generated by our Content segment may be adversely affected by a reduction or elimination of use of our Content segment’s services by competitors in the marketplace.

A portion of our Content segment’s income is currently generated by the licensing of software and content and by the performance of content processing services for direct competitors, including other content service providers. If our competitors develop their own software and content acquisition and processing capabilities, our Content segment may be materially adversely affected.


Risks Related to our Technology, Intellectual Property and Government Regulation

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Our Connectivity segment may suffer service interruptions or delays, technology failures or damage to its equipment.

Our reputation and ability to attract, retain and serve our commercial airline customers depends, in part, upon the reliable performance of our Connectivity segment’s satellite transponder capacity, network infrastructure and connectivity system. The operations and services of our Connectivity segment depend upon the extent to which our equipment and the equipment of our third-party network providers is protected against damage from fire, flood, earthquakes, power loss, solar flares, telecommunication failures, computer viruses, break-ins, acts of war or terrorism and similar events. Damage to our networks could cause interruptions in the services that we provide through our Connectivity segment, which could have a material adverse effect on our service revenue, our reputation and our ability to attract or retain customers. Our Connectivity segment has experienced interruptions in these systems in the past, including component and service failures that temporarily disrupted users’ access to the Internet, and we may experience further service interruptions, service delays or technology or systems failures, which may be due to factors beyond our control. If we experience frequent system or network failures, our reputation could be harmed and our airline customers may have the right to terminate their contracts with us or pursue other remedies, which could have a material adverse effect on our ability to attract and retain customers and our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Assertions by third parties of infringement, misappropriation or other violations by us of their intellectual property rights could result in significant costs and substantially harm our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In recent years, there has been significant litigation involving intellectual property rights in many technology-based industries, including the wireless communications industry. Any infringement, misappropriation or related claims, whether or not meritorious, are time-consuming, divert technical and management personnel and are costly to resolve. As a result of any such dispute, we may have to develop non-infringing technology, pay damages, enter into royalty or licensing agreements, cease providing certain products or services or take other actions to resolve the claims. These actions, if required, may be costly or unavailable on terms acceptable to us. Certain of our suppliers do not provide indemnity to us for the use of the products and services that these providers supply to us. At the same time, we generally offer third party intellectual property infringement indemnity to the customers of our Connectivity segment which, in some cases, do not cap our indemnity obligations and thus could render us liable for both defense costs and any judgments. Any of these events could result in increases in our operating expenses, limit our service offerings or result in a loss of business if we are unable to meet our indemnification obligations and our airline customers terminate or fail to renew their contracts.

We are subject to civil litigation involving allegations of copyright infringement and related claims for indemnification, which could result in our having to pay damages or injunctive relief. We may also be subject to additional similar litigation in the future.

As discussed in Note 9. Commitments and Contingencies of the consolidated financial statements included in this Annual Report, we have been and currently are subject to civil litigation by parties claiming that certain of our audio and music programming offerings infringe the copyright and other intellectual property rights of such parties. On May 6, 2014, UMG Recordings, Inc., Capital Records, Universal Music Corp and entities affiliated with the foregoing (collectively, “UMG”) filed suit in the United States District Court for the Central District of California against the Company and Inflight Productions Ltd. (“IFP”) for copyright infringement and related claims and unspecified money damages. IFP is a direct subsidiary of Global Entertainment AG, or GE AG, and an indirect subsidiary of the Company. As of December 31, 2015, the potential range of loss related to this matter cannot be determined. The case continues in the U.S. District Court and the parties have engaged in various settlement discussions. On July 1, 2014, American Airlines, Inc. (“American”) filed suit in Texas State Court, Tarrant County, against IFP, and filed an amended complaint on October 29, 2014, seeking a declaration that IFP is obligated to defend and indemnify American against claims that UMG may assert against American for copyright infringement insofar as such claims arise out of American’s use of content provided by IFP during a limited period of time, and for breach of contract. The American lawsuit seeks unspecified money damages and liquidated damages, as well as attorney’s fees. The Company and American are in discussions regarding a settlement. The outcome of this matter is inherently uncertain and could have a material adverse effect on the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations. We may in the future be subject to additional similar civil litigation involving copyright infringement, which could result in injunctive relief or our having to pay damages or claims for indemnification. We have incurred costs to defend and settle such lawsuits, and may incur additional costs in the future, and such costs may be material. We may also be subject to injunctive relief and our having to pay damages.

The use of open source software in our Connectivity segment could limit our ability to commercialize our technology.


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Open source software is software made widely and freely available to the public in human-readable source code form, usually with liberal rights to modify and improve such software. Some open source licenses require as a condition of use that proprietary software that is combined with licensed open source software and distributed must be released to the public in source code form and under the terms of the applicable open source license. Accordingly, and depending on the manner in which such licenses are interpreted and applied, we could face restrictions on our ability to commercialize certain of the products of our Connectivity segment and could be required to (i) release the source code of certain of our proprietary software to the public, including to competitors; (ii) seek licenses from third parties for replacement software; and/or (iii) re-engineer our software in order to continue offering our products. Such consequences could materially adversely affect our business.

The failure of our Connectivity segment’s equipment or material defects or errors in our software may damage our reputation or result in claims against us that exceed our insurance coverage, thereby requiring us to pay significant damages and impairing our ability to sell our connectivity service.

Our Connectivity segment’s products contain complex systems and components that could contain errors or defects, particularly when we incorporate new technology. If any of our connectivity products are defective, we could be required to redesign or recall those products or pay substantial damages or warranty claims. Such events could result in significant expenses, disrupt sales and affect our reputation and that of our products. If our Connectivity segment’s on-board equipment has a severe malfunction, or there is a problem with the equipment installation, which damages an airplane or impairs its on-board electronics or avionics, significant property loss and serious personal injury or death could result. Any such failure could expose us to substantial product liability claims or costly repair obligations. In particular, passenger jets operated by our airline customers are very costly to repair; therefore, the damages in any product liability claims could be material. Our insurance coverage may not be sufficient to fully cover the payment of any claims. A product recall or a product liability claim not covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Further, we indemnify most of our airline customers for losses due to third-party claims and, in certain cases, the causes for such losses may include failure of our products.

The software underlying our connectivity services is inherently complex and may contain material defects or errors, particularly when the software is first introduced or when new versions or enhancements are released. We have from time to time found defects or errors in its software, and defects or errors in our existing software may be detected in the future. Any defects or errors, particularly those that cause interruptions to the availability of our connectivity services could result in:

termination or failure to renew contracts by our airline customers;

a reduction in sales or delay in market acceptance of our connectivity service;

sales credits or refunds to our customers;

governmental compliance requirements regarding customer privacy rights;

loss of existing customers and difficulty in attracting new customers;

diversion of development resources;

harm to our reputation and brand image;

increased insurance costs; and

claims for substantial damages.

The costs incurred in correcting any material defects or errors in our software may be substantial and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operation.

Regulation by United States government agencies, such as the FAA, which regulates the civil aviation manufacturing and repair industries in the United States, and the FCC, which regulates the U.S. telecommunications industry, may increase our costs of providing service or require us to change our services.

Our Connectivity segment is subject to various governmental regulations, including those regulations promulgated by various federal, state and local regulatory agencies and legislative bodies and comparable agencies outside the United States where we do, or in the future may do, business. The U.S. government agency that has primary regulatory authority over our

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operations is the Federal Aviation Agency, or the FAA. The commercial and private aviation industries, including civil aviation manufacturing and repair industries, are highly regulated by the FAA in the United States. FAA certification is required for all equipment that we install on commercial aircraft, and certain of our operating activities require that we obtain FAA certification as a parts manufacturer. FAA approvals required to operate our Connectivity segment include Supplemental Type Certificates, or STCs, and Parts Manufacturing Authority, or PMAs. Obtaining STCs and PMAs is an expensive and time-consuming process that requires significant focus and resources. Any inability to obtain, delay in obtaining, or change in, needed FAA certifications, authorizations, or approvals, could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet the installation commitments of our Connectivity segment, manufacture and sell parts for installation on aircraft, or expand our business and could, therefore, materially adversely affect our growth prospects, business and operating results. The FAA closely regulates many of our operations. If we fail to comply with the FAA’s many regulations and standards that apply to our activities, we could lose the FAA certifications, authorizations or other approvals on which the manufacturing, installation, maintenance, preventive maintenance and alteration capabilities of our Connectivity segment are based. In addition, from time to time, the FAA may adopt new regulations or amend existing regulations, such as recently promulgated regulations with respect to random bird strike testing. The FAA could also change its policies regarding the delegation of inspection and certification responsibilities to private companies, which could adversely affect our business. To the extent that any such new regulations or amendments to existing regulations or policies apply to our activities, those new regulations or amendments to existing regulations would generally increase our costs of compliance.

In addition to the FAA, we are also subject to the rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”). As part of our authorization to commence providing satellite-based Wi-Fi connectivity services to aircraft, we obtained a license from the FCC that obligates us to comply with various requirements specifically identified in that license and with the general rules and regulations promulgated by the FCC. In addition, we agreed to cooperate with law enforcement agencies of the U.S. government to address specific concerns regarding providing connectivity to aircraft over the United States. Also, as a broadband Internet provider, we must also comply with the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994, or CALEA, and similar laws in other countries, which require communications carriers to ensure that their equipment, facilities and services can accommodate certain technical capabilities in executing authorized wiretapping and other electronic surveillance. Currently, our CALEA solutions are deployed in our U.S. network and Western European network, but we nevertheless could be subject to an enforcement action by the FCC, other telecommunications regulators or law enforcement agencies for any delays related to meeting any current or future CALEA or similarly mandated law enforcement related obligations. Such enforcement actions could subject us to fines, cease and desist orders or other penalties, all of which could adversely affect our business. Further, to the extent that the FCC adopts additional capability requirements applicable to broadband Internet providers, its decision may increase the costs that we must incur to comply with such regulations.

Adverse decisions or regulations of these regulatory bodies could negatively impact our operations and costs of doing business. We are unable to predict the scope, pace or financial impact of regulations and other policy changes that could be adopted by the various governmental entities that oversee portions of our business.
Regulation by foreign government agencies may increase our costs of providing service or require us to change our services.
 
Our Connectivity segment is subject to regulations promulgated by various regulatory agencies and legislative bodies in foreign jurisdictions where we do, or in the future may do, business. These foreign bodies may require us to obtain certifications for equipment that we install on commercial aircraft, and certain of our operating activities may require that we obtain foreign regulatory certifications as a parts manufacturer. Obtaining these certifications could be an expensive and time-consuming process requiring significant focus and resources. Adverse decisions or regulations of these foreign government agencies could delay the roll-out of our services and have other adverse consequences for us. For example, our agreement to equip flydubai with our Airconnect system, as well as the installation of our Connectivity solution on aircraft operated by Air China and Air France, are subject to regulatory approval processes currently underway, which processes could delay or ultimately prohibit these agreements from being performed under their current terms or at all.
Any inability to obtain, delay in obtaining, or change in, needed certifications, authorizations, or approvals, could have an adverse effect on our ability to meet the installation commitments of our Connectivity segment, manufacture and sell parts for installation on aircraft, or expand our business and could, therefore, materially adversely affect our growth prospects, business and operating results. Many of our operations are subject to regulation by a number of foreign regulatory agencies in multiple foreign jurisdictions. If we fail to comply with the many foreign regulations and standards that apply to our activities, we could lose the foreign certifications, authorizations or other approvals on which the manufacturing, installation, maintenance, preventive maintenance and alteration capabilities of our Connectivity segment are based. In addition, from time to time, the foreign bodies that regulate our activities may adopt new regulations, amend existing regulations or change their policies, all of which could adversely affect our business. To the extent that any such new regulations or amendments to existing regulations or

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policies apply to our activities, those new regulations or amendments to existing regulations would generally increase our costs of compliance.

If government regulation of the Internet, including e-commerce or online video distribution, changes, we may need to change the way we operate our Connectivity segment to a manner that incurs greater operating expenses, which could harm our results of operations.

The current legal environment for Internet communications, products and services is uncertain and subject to statutory, regulatory or interpretive change. Certain laws and regulations applicable to our Connectivity segment were adopted prior to the advent of the Internet and related technologies and often do not contemplate or address specific issues associated with those technologies. We cannot be certain that we, our vendors and media partners or our customers are currently in compliance with all applicable regulatory or other legal requirements in all of the countries in which our connectivity service is used. Our failure, or the failure of our vendors and media partners, customers and others with whom we transact business, to comply with existing or future legal or regulatory requirements could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Regulators may disagree with our interpretations of existing laws or regulations or the applicability of existing laws or regulations to our business, and existing laws, regulations and interpretations may change in unexpected ways. For example, the FCC adopted regulations regarding net neutrality that, in certain situations, limit mobile broadband providers to “network management” techniques that are reasonable; however, the rules were struck down by the D.C. Circuit Court as outside the scope of the FCC’s regulatory authority. Although these rules are no longer in effect, the FCC has indicated it intends to implement similar network management limitations in the future, which, if deemed valid under the FCC’s authority, could adversely impact our ability to monitor and manage the network to optimize our users’ Internet experience.

We cannot be certain what positions regulators may take regarding our compliance with, or lack of compliance with, current and future legal and regulatory requirements or what positions regulators may take regarding any past or future actions that Connectivity segment has taken or may take in any jurisdiction. Regulators may determine that we are not in compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, and impose penalties, or we may need to make changes to our connectivity system, which could be costly and difficult. Any of these events would adversely affect our operating results and financial condition.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry
Our management has concluded that our disclosure controls are ineffective due to a material weaknesses in our internal control over the timeliness of financial reporting. If we are unable to establish and maintain effective disclosure controls and internal control over timely financial reporting, our ability to produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis could be impaired, and the market price of our securities may be negatively affected.

A material weakness is a deficiency, or combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected and corrected on a timely basis. In connection with our 2015 audit, our management conducted an assessment of our disclosure controls and procedures and our internal control over financial reporting. Due to the existence of a material weakness in our internal controls surrounding the timeliness of our 2015 financial statement close process, management concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting were ineffective. See Item 9A. Controls and Procedures.

We may need to expend significant financial resources to remediate this material weakness. If we are unable to establish and maintain proper and effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to produce timely and accurate financial statements. If that were to happen, investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our securities could decline, and we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by NASDAQ, the SEC or other regulatory authorities.

Our business is highly dependent on the airline industry, which itself is affected by many events that are beyond the control of the airlines. The highly competitive nature of the airline industry makes it extremely sensitive to economic conditions, both domestically and internationally.

Our business is directly affected by the number of passengers flying on commercial airlines, the financial condition of these airlines and related economic conditions and the general availability of air travel around the world. If consumer demand for air travel declines, or the number of aircraft and flights shrink, or air travel is severely disrupted in a key operating area, the number of passengers available to use our in-flight services and enjoy our delivered content will be reduced, which will have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and prospects. High unemployment rates, reduced consumer and business

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spending, recessionary conditions in the United States or Europe and terrorism are among the general economic and social conditions that adversely affect the airline industry. A general reduction or shift in discretionary spending can result in decreased demand for leisure and business travel and lead to a reduction in the number of airline flights offered, the number of passengers flying and the willingness of airlines to commit to spending funds on items such as our in-flight connectivity system. Each of our airline customers operates in an intensely competitive environment and constantly faces pressure on in-flight offerings and pricing of all aspects of air travel. These uncertain and, at times, unfavorable financial circumstances in the air travel industry could cause one or more of our commercial airline customers to reduce expenditures on passenger services, including the deployment of our in-flight connectivity system or content, which could have a material adverse effect on our business prospects and financial condition.
Uncertain global economic conditions could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.

Instability and changes in economic and political conditions across the globe, including inflation, recession, interest rate fluctuations and actual or anticipated military or political conflicts are among the global risks that may impact our business and our plans for expansion. Our operations and performance are sensitive to fluctuations in general economic conditions, both in the U.S. and globally.
For example, the United States and the European Union recently expanded their sanctions against Russia which, among other things, increased the restrictions on sales of certain products, including aviation products and planes, to Russia and to specified restricted parties in or affiliated with Russia. Such sanctions have negatively affect the business that our two customers in Russia conduct with us and, in such case, may have a material adverse effect on our revenues, the realizability of our accounts receivables with such parties, and the results of our operations. In addition, geopolitical instability in the Middle East as well as the continued volatility of the currency markets in the emerging economies could negatively impact the broader economy, which could affect our revenues and results of operations.
If the benefits of any acquisition that we or any of our subsidiaries consummate do not meet the expectations of the marketplace, investors, financial analysts or industry analysts, our financial condition may be negatively affected and the market price of our securities may decline.

We may not realize the expected benefits of any acquisitions as rapidly as, or to the extent anticipated by, the marketplace, investors, financial analysts or industry analysts. Any such failure may have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations and stock price.

Subsequent to the consummation of any acquisition that we may consummate, we may be required to take write-downs or write-offs, restructuring and impairment or other charges that may have a negative effect on our financial condition and the market price of our securities.

Although we conducted due diligence in connection with the acquisitions WOI, RMG, masFlight and navAero, we cannot assure you that this diligence revealed all material issues that may be present in WOI, RMG, masFlight and navAero’s respective businesses, that it would be possible to uncover all material issues through a customary amount of due diligence, or that factors outside of our control will not later arise. Similarly, subsequent to the consummation of any future acquisition, regardless of any due diligence we may conduct, certain issues or risks may be revealed. As a result, we may be forced to later write down or write off assets, restructure operations, or incur impairment or other charges that could result in losses. Even if the due diligence that we conducted in connection with acquisitions that we have already consummated or that we consummate in the future successfully identifies certain risks, unexpected risks may arise and previously known risks may materialize in a manner not consistent with our preliminary risk analysis. Even though these charges may be non-cash items and not have an immediate impact on our liquidity, the fact that we report charges of this nature could contribute to negative market perceptions about us or our securities. Any such write-downs, write-offs, restructuring or charges could have a significant negative effect on our financial condition, results of operations and stock price.
Additional businesses or technologies we acquire could prove difficult to integrate, disrupt our ongoing business, dilute stockholder value or have an adverse effect on our results of operations.

In addition to the acquisitions that we consummated in 2013, we may engage in further acquisitions of businesses or technologies to augment our growth. Acquisitions involve challenges and risks in negotiation, execution, valuation and integration. Moreover, we may not be able to find suitable acquisition opportunities on terms that are acceptable to us. Even if successfully negotiated, closed and integrated, certain acquisitions may not advance our business strategy, may fall short of

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expected return-on-investment targets or may fail. In addition to the risks described above, any past or future acquisition could involve numerous additional risks, including:

potential disruption of our ongoing business and distraction of management;

difficulty integrating the operations and products of the acquired business;

use of cash to fund the acquisition or for unanticipated expenses;

limited market experience in new businesses;

exposure to unknown liabilities, including litigation against the companies that we acquire;

additional costs due to differences in culture, geographical locations and duplication of key talent;

delays associated with or resources being devoted to regulatory review and approval;

acquisition-related accounting charges affecting our balance sheet and operations;

difficulty integrating the financial results of the acquired business in our consolidated financial statements;

controls in the acquired business;

potential impairment of goodwill;

dilution to our current stockholders from the issuance of equity securities; and

potential loss of key employees or customers of the acquired company.

In the event that we enter into any acquisition agreements, closing of the transactions could be delayed or prevented by regulatory approval requirements, including antitrust review, or other conditions. We may not be successful in addressing these risks or any other problems encountered in connection with any attempted acquisitions, and we could assume the economic risks of such failed or unsuccessful acquisitions.

In certain of our previously completed acquisitions, we have agreed to make future payments, either in the form of employee bonuses or contingent purchase price payments, or earnouts, based on the performance of the acquired businesses or the employees who joined us with the acquired businesses. We may use earnouts for acquisitions in the future. The performance goals pursuant to which these future payments may be made generally relate to achievement by the acquired business or the employees who joined us with the acquired business of certain specified benchmarks during a specified period following completion of the applicable acquisition. Future acquisitions may involve issuances of stock as full or partial payment of the purchase price for the acquired business, grants of incentive stock or options to employees of the acquired businesses (which may be dilutive to existing stockholders), expenditure of substantial cash resources or the incurrence of material amounts of debt. The specific performance goal levels and amounts and timing of employee bonuses or contingent purchase price payments vary with each acquisition. While we expect to derive value from an acquisition in excess of such contingent payment obligations, our strategy may change and we may be required to make certain contingent payments without deriving the anticipated value.

The failure to implement, as well as the completion and impact of, our restructuring efforts could adversely affect our business.    
  
In September 2014, we announced our formal restructuring plan to streamline/improve operating procedures and generate synergies within our business. These corporate realignment activities involve changes to many aspects of our business, including complex legal- and tax-related matters. We incurred approximately $0.4 million and $4.2 million in restructuring charges in connection with these efforts in 2015 and 2014, respectively. We may incur costs and expend considerable resources in connection with this and/or any additional restructuring plans and these activities could distract our management and negatively impact our results of operations. We cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully implement this restructuring, which could mean that the costs incurred and resources expended in connection with our restructuring efforts may not yield the results that we anticipate. Even if we do successfully implement our restructuring, we may not realize the benefits that we anticipate from these efforts. We cannot assure you that the restructuring will result in cost savings or will materially

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increase our profitability. Even if the restructuring generates the benefits that we have anticipated, there may be other unforeseeable and unintended factors or consequences that occur as a result of the reorganization, which could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operation.

A future act or threat of terrorism or other events could result in a prohibition on the use of Wi-Fi enabled devices on aircraft.

A future act of terrorism, the threat of such acts or other airline accidents could have an adverse effect on the airline industry. In the event of a terrorist attack, terrorist threats or unrelated airline accidents, the industry would likely experience significantly reduced passenger demand. The U.S. federal government could respond to such events by prohibiting the use of Wi-Fi enabled devices on aircraft, which would eliminate demand for our in-flight equipment and services. In addition, any association or perceived association between our equipment or services and accidents involving aircraft on which our equipment or services operate would likely have an adverse effect on demand for our services. Reduced demand for our products and services would adversely affect our business prospects, financial condition and results of operations.

We may not be able to grow our business with our current airline customers or successfully secure new airline customers in the future, on favorable terms or at all.

We are constantly in negotiations and discussions with existing airline customers and potential new airline customers to either maintain or expand an existing contract or win a new contract. Negotiations with airline customers require a substantial amount of time, energy and resources, and there can be no assurance that we will be successful in maintaining existing customers or winning new customers. If any of our current airline customers or potential new airline customers do not view our product and service offerings as high-quality or cost-effective, or if we do not keep pace with innovation, our current and potential customers may choose to do business with our competitors. Unreliable service levels, uncompetitive pricing, lack of availability, security risk and lack of related features of our equipment and services are some of the factors that may adversely impact our ability to retain existing customers and partners and attract new and repeat customers. If consumers are able to satisfy their in-flight entertainment needs through activities other than broadband Internet access, at no or lower cost, they may not perceive value in our products and services.

Additionally, the terms of any future agreements with existing or new airline customers may be less favorable than the current agreements. We may ultimately fail in entering into agreements with additional commercial airlines on competitive terms, and that failure could harm our results of operations due to a diversion of resources, the actual costs of pursuing these opportunities and the inability to deploy committed satellite transponder space segments to additional airlines. To the extent that we are unable to secure new airline customers or that any of our future agreements with existing or new customers are not as favorable as our existing arrangements, our growth and financial prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

Increased costs and other demands associated with the growth of our business could impact our ability to achieve profitability over the long term and could strain our personnel, technology and infrastructure resources.

Anticipated future growth, including growth related to the broadening of our service offerings and international expansion of our business into new markets, could require the outlay of significant operating and capital expenditures and could place strains on our personnel, technology and infrastructure. Our success will depend, in part, upon our ability to contain costs with respect to growth opportunities. To successfully manage the expected growth of our operations in a timely and cost-effective manner, we will need to continue to improve our operational, financial, technological and management controls and our reporting systems and procedures. In addition, as we continue to grow, we must effectively integrate, develop and motivate a large number of new employees and must maintain the beneficial aspects of our corporate culture. If we fail to successfully manage the growth of our business, it could adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.

Competition from a number of companies could result in price reduction, reduced revenue and a loss of market share, all of which could harm our results of operations.

In-flight entertainment is undergoing a sea change driven, first and foremost, by technical innovations. We face competition from land-based providers of broadband Wi-Fi services to commercial airlines and from other satellite-based broadband providers of Internet connectivity, live television, video on-demand services and content. In recent years, a number of new vendors have emerged with new technologies and new approaches, especially for the hardware systems that are built into aircraft. Competition from such providers has affected the prospects of our business and will continue to do so in the future, especially given the fact that there are a limited number of commercial airlines around the world. Some of our competitors are larger, more diversified companies with greater financial, marketing, production and research and development resources. As a result, these competitors may be better positioned to withstand the effects of periodic economic downturns,

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especially those that continue for extended periods of time. Competition within the in-flight broadband Internet access and in-cabin entertainment markets may also subject us to downward pricing pressures on our service and product offerings. Competition will likely increase our sales and marketing expenses and related customer acquisition costs. We may not have the liquidity, financial resources, technical expertise or marketing and support capabilities to compete successfully. Our failure to respond to established and new competitors could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

We may fail to recruit, train and retain the highly skilled employees that are necessary to remain competitive and execute the growth strategy of our business. The loss of one or more of our key personnel could harm our business.

Competition for key technical personnel in high-technology industries is intense. We believe that the future success of our business depends in large part on our continued ability to hire, train, retain and leverage the skills of qualified engineers and other highly skilled personnel needed to maintain and grow our satellite based broadband connectivity network and our Content segment. We may not be as successful as our competitors at recruiting, training, retaining and utilizing these highly skilled personnel. In particular, we may have more difficulty attracting or retaining highly skilled personnel during periods of poor operating performance. In addition, because of the widespread geographical locations of our business, we have a risk of migration of employees and poor retention rate. We may also encounter challenges in complying with foreign employment laws and regulations in our many international locations. Any failure to recruit, train and retain highly skilled employees or any failure to comply with applicable foreign employment laws and regulations could negatively impact our business and results of operations.

Our business depends on the continued service and performance of key personnel. Such individuals have acquired specialized knowledge and skills with respect to our segments and their operations. As a result, if any of these individuals were to leave, we could face substantial difficulty in hiring qualified successors and could experience a loss of productivity while any such successor obtains the necessary training and expertise. We do not maintain key man insurance on any of our officers or key employees. In addition, much of our key technology and systems are custom-made for our business by our personnel. The loss of key personnel, including key members of our management team, as well as certain of our key marketing or technology personnel, could disrupt our operations and have an adverse effect on our ability to grow our business.

Our corporate structure may create tax inefficiencies.

GE AG is our wholly-owned subsidiary and thus a controlled foreign corporation of the Company for U.S. federal income tax purposes. This organizational structure may create inefficiencies, as certain types of income and investments of GE AG that otherwise would not be currently taxable under general tax principles, may become taxable. In addition, distributions from the operating subsidiaries of GE AG may be subject to additional withholding tax and result in lower profits. We are in the process of implementing changes to streamline our corporate structure. By doing so, certain transactions in the restructuring could be taxable in the United States and Germany. We cannot presently predict the impact such restructuring may have on U.S. and foreign tax liability.

Risks Related to Our Indebtedness

We may not have sufficient cash flow from our business to make payments on our indebtedness.

Our ability to make scheduled payments of the principal of, to pay interest on or to refinance our indebtedness depends on our performance, which is subject to economic, financial, competitive and other factors beyond our control. Our business may not generate cash flow from operations in the future sufficient to service our debt and make necessary capital expenditures. If we are unable to generate such cash flow, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.

We may incur substantially more debt or take other actions that would intensify the risks discussed above.

In addition to our convertible notes, we and our subsidiaries may incur substantial additional debt, subject to restrictions contained in our existing and future debt instruments, some or all of which may be secured debt. We will not be restricted under the terms of the indenture governing our convertible notes from incurring additional debt, securing existing or future debt, recapitalizing our debt or taking a number of other actions that are not limited by the terms of the indenture governing the notes that could have the effect of diminishing our ability to make payments on the notes when due. Our Loan and Security Agreement, dated as of December 22, 2014, with Citibank, N.A., or our Credit Agreement, restricts our ability to incur

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additional indebtedness, including secured indebtedness, but if the facility matures or is repaid, we may not be subject to such restrictions under the terms of any subsequent indebtedness.

We may not have the ability to repay the principal amount of our convertible notes at maturity, to raise the funds necessary to settle conversions of our convertible notes or to repurchase our convertible notes upon a fundamental change or on specified repurchase dates, and the agreements governing our future indebtedness may contain limitations on our ability to repurchase our convertible notes.

At maturity, the entire outstanding principal amount of our convertible notes will become due and payable by us. Upon the occurrence of a fundamental change or upon each of February 20, 2022, February 22, 2025 and February 22, 2030, holders of convertible notes will also have the right to require us to repurchase all or a portion of their convertible notes at a repurchase price equal to 100% of the principal amount of our convertible notes to be repurchased, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. In addition, upon conversion of our convertible notes, unless we elect to deliver solely shares of our common stock to settle such conversion (other than paying cash in lieu of delivering any fractional share), we will be required to make cash payments in respect of our convertible notes being converted. However, we may not have sufficient funds or be able to obtain financing at the time we are required to repay the principal amount of our convertible notes, make repurchases of our convertible notes or settle conversions of our convertible notes. In addition, our ability to repurchase our convertible notes may be limited by law, regulatory action or agreements governing our indebtedness. Furthermore, certain transactions or events that would give holders of our convertible notes, if issued, the right to put our convertible notes back to us or to convert our convertible notes with an increased conversion rate would constitute events of default under the Credit Agreement. Our failure to repay the principal amount of our convertible notes, repurchase convertible notes at a time when the repurchase is required by the indenture or to settle conversions of our convertible notes would constitute a default under the indenture. A default under the indenture or the fundamental change itself could also lead to a default under agreements governing our future indebtedness. If the repayment of the related indebtedness were to be accelerated after any applicable notice or grace periods, we may not have sufficient funds to repay the indebtedness and repurchase our convertible notes or make cash payments upon conversion thereof.
The conditional conversion feature of our convertible notes, if triggered, may adversely affect our financial condition and operating results.

In the event the conditional conversion feature of our convertible notes is triggered, holders of convertible notes will be entitled to convert our convertible notes at any time during specified periods at their option. If one or more holders elect to convert their convertible notes, unless we elect to satisfy our conversion obligation by delivering solely shares of our common stock (other than cash in lieu of any fractional share), we would be required to settle a portion or all of our conversion obligation through the payment of cash, which could adversely affect our liquidity. In addition, even if holders do not elect to convert their convertible notes, we could be required under applicable accounting rules to reclassify all or a portion of the outstanding principal of the notes as a current rather than long-term liability, which may result in a material reduction of our net working capital.
The accounting method for convertible debt securities that may be settled in cash could have a material adverse effect on our reported financial results.

Under Accounting Standards Codification 470-20, Debt with Conversion and Other Options, which we refer to as ASC 470-20, we are required to separately account for the liability and equity components of our convertible notes because they may be settled entirely or partially in cash upon conversion in a manner that reflects our economic interest cost. The effect of ASC 470-20 on the accounting for our convertible notes is that the equity component is required to be included in the additional paid-in capital section of stockholders’ deficit on our consolidated balance sheet, and the value of the equity component would be treated as original issue discount for purposes of accounting for the debt component of our convertible notes. As a result, we will be required to record a greater amount of non-cash interest expense in current periods presented as a result of the amortization of the discounted carrying value of our convertible notes to their face amount over the term of our convertible notes. We will report lower net income in our financial results because ASC 470-20 will require interest to include both the current period’s amortization of the debt discount and the instrument’s coupon interest, which could adversely affect our reported or future financial results, the trading price of our common stock and the trading price of our convertible notes.

In addition, because our convertible notes may be settled entirely or partly in cash, under certain circumstances, our convertible notes are currently accounted for utilizing the treasury stock method, the effect of which is that the shares issuable upon conversion of our convertible notes are not included in the calculation of diluted earnings per share except to the extent that the conversion value of our convertible notes exceeds their principal amount. Under the treasury stock method, for diluted

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earnings per share purposes, the transaction is accounted for as if the number of shares of common stock that would be necessary to settle such excess, if we elected to settle such excess in shares, are issued. We cannot be sure that the accounting standards in the future will continue to permit the use of the treasury stock method. If we are unable to use the treasury stock method in accounting for the shares issuable upon conversion of our convertible notes, then our diluted earnings per share would be adversely affected.

Our substantial indebtedness may limit cash flow available to invest in the ongoing needs of our business.

We have a significant amount of indebtedness. Our total outstanding consolidated indebtedness as of December 31, 2015 was $72.2 million , net of fees. Furthermore, as of December 31, 2015, we had $20.0 million of availability for additional borrowings under the Credit Agreement. The indenture governing our convertible notes does not limit our ability to incur indebtedness, and we could in the future incur additional indebtedness beyond such amount. Our substantial debt combined with our other financial obligations and contractual commitments could have significant adverse consequences, including:
requiring us to dedicate a substantial portion of cash flow from operations to the payment of interest on, and principal of, our debt, which will reduce the amounts available to fund working capital, capital expenditures, product development efforts and other general corporate purposes;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse changes in general economic, industry and market conditions;
obligating us to restrictive covenants that may reduce our ability to take certain corporate actions or obtain further debt or equity financing;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and the industry in which we compete; and
placing us at a competitive disadvantage compared to our competitors that have less debt or better debt servicing options.
We intend to satisfy our current and future debt service obligations with our existing cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities and funds from external sources. However, we may not have sufficient funds or may be unable to arrange for additional financing to pay the amounts due under our existing debt. Funds from external sources may not be available on acceptable terms, if at all. In the event of an acceleration of amounts due under our debt instruments as a result of an event of default, including upon the occurrence of an event that would reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on our business, operations, properties, assets or condition or a failure to pay any amount due, we may not have sufficient funds or may be unable to arrange for additional financing to repay our indebtedness or to make any accelerated payments.
If we do not comply with the provisions of our Credit Agreement, our lenders may terminate their obligations to us and require us to repay all outstanding amounts owed thereunder.

Our Credit Agreement contains provisions that limit our operating and financing activities, including financial covenants relating to liquidity, indebtedness and Adjusted EBITDA. If an event of default occurs and is continuing, the lenders may among other things, terminate their obligations thereunder and require us to repay all amounts thereunder. Depending on the amount of indebtedness we have drawn under our Credit Agreement, any such repayment obligation could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and results of operation.

The fundamental change repurchase feature of the indenture governing our convertible notes may increase the price of or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of us.

The indenture governing our convertible notes requires us to repurchase our convertible notes for cash upon the occurrence of a fundamental change of us and, in certain circumstances, to increase the conversion rate for a holder that converts its notes in connection with a make-whole fundamental change. A takeover of us may trigger the requirement that we repurchase our convertible notes and/or increase the conversion rate, which could make it more costly for a potential acquirer to engage in a combinatory transaction with us. Such additional costs may have the effect of preventing a takeover of us that would otherwise be beneficial to investors.

Conversion of our convertible notes may dilute the ownership interest of our existing stockholders, including holders who had previously converted their notes, or may otherwise depress the price of our common stock.

The conversion of some or all of our convertible notes will dilute the ownership interests of existing stockholders to the extent we deliver shares upon conversion of any of our convertible notes. Any sales in the public market of the common stock

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issuable upon such conversion or any anticipated conversion of our convertible notes into shares of our common stock could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock. In addition, the existence of our convertible notes may encourage short selling by market participants because the conversion of our convertible notes could be used to satisfy short positions.

Risks Related to Our Common Stock

The interests of our largest stockholder may conflict with our interests and the interests of our other stockholders.

As of March 1, 2016, PAR Investment Partners, L.P., or PAR, beneficially owned approximately 38% of our outstanding shares of common stock. As a result, PAR may have the ability to influence the election of our directors and the outcome of corporate actions of the Company requiring stockholder approval, including amendments to our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation and approval of significant corporate transactions. This concentration of ownership may have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control and might adversely affect the market price of our common stock. The interests of PAR may conflict with our interests or those of other stockholders.
Future sales of our common stock may cause the market price of our securities to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.

The market price of shares of our common stock could decline as a result of sales of a large number of shares of our common stock in the market in the future, and the perception that these sales could occur may also depress the market price of shares of our common stock. We have registered for resale shares of our common stock held by stockholders owning a significant portion of our total outstanding shares, including the shares held by PAR which constitute approximately 38% of our outstanding common stock. We also have outstanding approximately 2,780,744 stock options that are currently exercisable by the holders thereof. Our significant stockholders, including PAR, have the ability to sell large amounts of our stock in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, which could have the effect of increasing the volatility in our stock price or putting significant downward pressure on the price of our stock or make it more difficult for us to raise additional capital through the sale of equity securities.

The market price of our securities may be volatile and may decline as a result of a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control.

The trading price of our securities could be volatile and subject to wide fluctuations in response to various factors, some of which are beyond our control. Any of the factors listed below could have a material adverse effect on an investment in our securities, and our securities may trade at prices significantly below the price that you paid for them. In such circumstances, the trading price of our securities may not recover and may experience a further decline.

Factors affecting the trading price of our securities may include:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly financial results or the quarterly financial results of companies perceived to be similar to us;

changes in the market’s expectations about our operating results;

success of competitors;

our operating results failing to meet the expectation of securities analysts or investors in a particular period;

changes in financial estimates and recommendations by securities analysts concerning the Company, the market for in-flight entertainment, the airline industry, or the travel market in general;

operating and stock price performance of other companies that investors deem comparable to us;

our ability to market new and enhanced products on a timely basis;

changes in laws and regulations affecting our business or our industry;

commencement of, or involvement in, litigation involving the Company;


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changes in our capital structure, such as future issuances of securities or the incurrence of additional debt;

the volume of shares of our common stock available for public sale;

any major change in our board or management;

sales of substantial amounts of common stock by our directors, executive officers or significant stockholders or the perception that such sales could occur; and

general economic and political conditions such as recessions, interest rates, fuel prices, international currency fluctuations and acts of war or terrorism.

Broad market and industry factors may materially harm the market price of our securities irrespective of our operating performance. The stock market in general, and Nasdaq in particular, have experienced price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of the particular companies affected. As a result, the trading prices and valuations of these stocks, and of our securities, may not be predictable. A loss of investor confidence in the market for retail stocks or the stocks of other companies which investors perceive to be similar to us could depress our stock price regardless of our business, prospects, financial conditions or results of operations. A decline in the market price of our securities also could adversely affect our ability to issue additional securities and our ability to obtain additional financing in the future.

Warrants currently exercisable for our common stock could significantly increase the number of shares eligible for future resale in the public market and result in dilution to our stockholders.

Outstanding warrants purchasing an aggregate of 6,173,228 shares of our common stock are exercisable for a like number of shares of our common stock. The exercise price of these warrants is $11.50 per share. To the extent that such warrants are exercised, additional shares of our common stock will be issued, which will result in dilution to the holders of common stock of the Company and increase the number of shares eligible for resale in the public market. Sales of substantial numbers of such shares in the public market could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

We may redeem your unexpired warrants prior to their exercise at a time that is disadvantageous to warrant holders, thereby making your warrants worthless.

We have the ability to redeem outstanding warrants at any time prior to their expiration, at a price of $0.01 per warrant, provided that the last reported sales price of the common stock equals or exceeds $17.50 per share for any 20 trading days within a 30 trading-day period ending on the third trading day prior to proper notice of such redemption, provided that on the date we give notice of redemption and during the entire period thereafter until the time that we redeem the warrants, we have an effective registration statement under the Securities Act covering the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants and a current prospectus relating to them is available. A registration statement covering the shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of the warrants was declared effective by the SEC on August 22, 2013. If and when the warrants become redeemable by us, we may exercise our redemption right even if we are unable to register or qualify the underlying securities for sale under all applicable state securities laws. Redemption of the outstanding warrants could force you (i) to exercise your warrants and pay the exercise price therefor at a time when it may be disadvantageous for you to do so, (ii) to sell your warrants at the then-current market price when you might otherwise wish to hold your warrants or (iii) to accept the nominal redemption price which, at the time the outstanding warrants are called for redemption, is likely to be substantially less than the market value of your warrants.

We may amend the terms of our outstanding warrants sold as part of the units in our initial public offering in a manner that may be adverse to holders with the approval by the holders of at least 65% of such warrants then outstanding.

As of December 31, 2015, we had approximately 6.2 million warrants outstanding that were issued in registered form under a warrant agreement between American Transfer & Stock Company, LLC, as warrant agent. The warrant agreement provides that the terms of the warrants may be amended without the consent of any holder to cure any ambiguity or correct any defective provision, but requires the approval by the holders of at least 65% of the then outstanding warrants sold as part of the units in our initial public offering to make any change that adversely affects the interests of the registered holders. Accordingly, we may amend the terms of the warrants in a manner adverse to a holder if holders of at least 65% of the then outstanding warrants sold as part of the units in our initial public offering approve of such amendment. Although our ability to amend the terms of the warrants with the consent of at least 65% of the then outstanding warrants is unlimited, examples of such

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amendments could be amendments to, among other things, increase the exercise price of the warrants, shorten the exercise period or decrease the number of shares of our common stock purchasable upon exercise of a warrant.

If securities or industry analysts cease publishing research or reports about the Company, our business, or our market, or if they change their recommendations regarding our common stock adversely, the price and trading volume of our common stock could decline.

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts may publish about us, our business, our market, or our competitors. If insufficient securities or industry analysts cover us, our stock price and trading volume would likely be negatively impacted. If any of the analysts covering us change their recommendation regarding our stock adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our common stock would likely decline. If any analyst who covers us were to cease coverage of us or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

Anti-takeover provisions contained in our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could impair a takeover attempt.

Our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that could have the effect of delaying or preventing changes in control or changes in our management without the consent of our board of directors. These provisions include:

a classified board of directors with three-year staggered terms, which may delay the ability of stockholders to change the membership of a majority of our board of directors;
no cumulative voting in the election of directors, which limits the ability of minority stockholders to elect director candidates.
the exclusive right of our board of directors to elect a director to fill a vacancy created by the expansion of the board of directors or the resignation, death, or removal of a director, which prevents stockholders from being able to fill vacancies on our board of directors;
the ability of our board of directors to determine to issue shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and other terms of those shares, including preferences and voting rights, without stockholder approval, which could be used to significantly dilute the ownership of a hostile acquirer
a prohibition on stockholder action by written consent, which forces stockholder action to be taken at an annual or special meeting of our stockholders;
the requirement that an annual meeting of stockholders may be called only by the chairman of the board of directors, the chief executive officer, or the board of directors, which may delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or to take action, including the removal of directors;
limiting the liability of, and providing indemnification to, our directors and officers;
controlling the procedures for the conduct and scheduling of stockholder meetings;
providing the board of directors with the express power to postpone previously scheduled annual meetings of stockholders and to cancel previously scheduled annual meetings of stockholders;
providing that directors may be removed prior to the expiration of their terms by stockholders only for cause; and
advance notice procedures that stockholders must comply with in order to nominate candidates to our board of directors or to propose matters to be acted upon at a stockholders’ meeting, which may discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of the Company.
These provisions, alone or together, could delay hostile takeovers and changes in control of the Company or changes in our management.

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As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the DGCL, which prevents some stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock from engaging in certain business combinations without approval of the holders of substantially all of the Company’s outstanding common stock. Any provision of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock, and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

We may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to investors.

In February 2015, we issued $82.5 million aggregate principal amount of convertible notes and during the year ended December 31, 2015, we issued 1.4 million shares of common stock in exchange for 4.2 million outstanding warrants, as well as additional shares of common stock pursuant to awards made under our equity incentive plan. As a result of the issuance of common stock, there was dilution to our then existing shareholders. To the extent that any of the convertible notes are converted into shares of common stock or we need to raise additional capital in the future and we issue additional shares of common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock, our then existing stockholders may experience dilution and the new securities may have rights senior to those of our common stock offered. In addition, to the extent we settle the conversion of the convertible notes with shares of our common stock, such conversion would be dilutive to our current stockholders. The conversion of a significant amount of our convertible notes, if settled in shares, could cause a decline in the market price of our common stock, which could adversely affect your ability to sell your shares in the market or our ability to raise capital in the future or both.

Lack of dividends may make our stock less attractive as an investment.

We intend to retain all future earnings for use in the development of our business. We do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our stock in the foreseeable future. Accordingly, our stockholders may have to sell some or all of their common stock in order to generate cash flow from their investment. Our stockholders may not receive a gain on their investment when they sell their common stock and may lose some or the entire amount of their investment. In addition, stocks that pay regular dividends command higher market trading prices, and so our stock price may be lower as a result of our dividend policy. Any determination to pay dividends in the future will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon our financial condition, operating results, contractual restrictions, restrictions imposed by applicable law and other factors that our board of directors deems relevant.

Our ability to raise capital in the future may be limited.

Our business and operations may consume resources faster than we anticipate. In the future, we may need to raise additional funds through the issuance of new equity securities, debt or a combination of both. Additional financing may not be available on favorable terms, or at all. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to fund our capital requirements. If we issue new debt securities, the debt holders would have rights senior to stockholders to make claims on our assets, and the terms of any debt could restrict our operations, including our ability to pay dividends on our common stock. If we issue additional equity securities, existing stockholders will experience dilution, and the new equity securities could have rights senior to those of our common stock. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, our stockholders bear the risk of our future securities offerings reducing the market price of our common stock and diluting their interest.

We are able to issue shares of preferred stock with greater rights than our common stock.

Our second amended and restated certificate of incorporation authorizes our board of directors to issue one or more series of preferred stock and set the terms of the preferred stock without seeking any further approval from our shareholders. Any preferred stock that is issued may rank ahead of our common stock in terms of dividends, liquidation rights or voting rights. If we issue preferred stock, it may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Not Applicable.


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ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
Our principal properties at December 31, 2015 include:
Location
 
Property / Approximate Size
 
Use and Term
 
Function
Westlake Village, CA, USA
 
Building (6,880 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 3/31/16
 
Corporate/Connectivity Services
Marina Del Rey, CA, USA
 
Building Suite #200 (14,667 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 5/17/17
 
Corporate/Content Services
Marina Del Rey, CA, USA
 
Building Suite #300 (5,064 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 5/17/17
 
Corporate/Content Services
Vaughan, Ontario, Canada
 
Building (10,200 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 12/31/17
 
Content Services
Lombard, Ill, USA
 
Building (24,304 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 2/28/25
 
Connectivity R&D
Camarillo, CA USA
 
Hanger
 
Leased plane hanger; termination date: 6/30/16
 
Connectivity R&D and Operations
New York, NY, USA
 
Building (300 square feet)
 
Leased office; biannual renewal
 
Ad Sales/Marketing
Los Angeles, CA, USA
 
Building (10,000 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 6/31/16
 
Content Services
North Point, Hong Kong
 
Building (5,213 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 6/18/18
 
Content Services
Reston, VA, USA
 
Building (2,906 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 12/31/20
 
Operations Data Solutions
Amsterdam, Netherlands
 
Building (850 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 12/31/18
 
Content Services
Singapore, Southeast Asia
 
Building (7,100 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 7/8/17
 
Content Services
Dubai Media City, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
 
Building (1,550 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 5/31/16
 
Content Services
Dubai Media City, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
 
Building (1,543 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 10/31/16
 
Content Services
Mumbai, India
 
Building (2,588 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 3/31/18
 
Content Services
Mumbai, India
 
Building (13,278 square feet)
 
Leased office; 99 year lease, 90 years remaining
 
Content Services
Miami, FL, USA
 
Building (5,651 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 2/29/16
 
Operations Data Solutions
London, United Kingdom
 
Building (14,500 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 3/31/16
 
Content Services
Irvine, CA, USA
 
Building (22,000 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date 6/30/20
 
Content Technical Lab
Sundsvall, Sweden
 
Building (2,100 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 9/30/19
 
Operations Data Solutions
Manchester, United Kingdom
 
Building (13,533 square feet)
 
Owned Building mortgage to be paid off in 2032
 
Content Services
Madrid, Spain
 
Building (2,435 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 3/31/16
 
Content Services
Lake Forest, CA, USA
 
Building (5,311 square feet)
 
Leased office; termination date: 3/19/17
 
Content Services

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Beijing, China
 
Building 10 square meter
 
Leased office; biannual renewal
 
Connectivity
Beijing, China
 
Building 592 square feet
 
Leased office; annual renewal
 
Connectivity Sales
Auckland, New Zealand
 
Building 873 square feet
 
Lease Office: end 10/31/18
 
Content Services
Montreal, Canada
 
Building 22,244 square feet
 
Lease Office: end 6/30/25
 
Content Services

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Certain legal proceedings in which we are involved are discussed in Note 9. Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements included in Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules, and are incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Capital Market (“NASDAQ”) under the symbol “ENT."
The following table sets forth, for the period indicated and on a per-share basis, the high and low sale prices of our common stock as reported by NASDAQ.
Year Ended December 31, 2015
High
 
Low
Fourth Quarter
$
13.74

 
$
9.70

Third Quarter
$
13.36

 
$
10.77

Second Quarter
$
14.23

 
$
12.26

First Quarter
$
15.74

 
$
12.95

 
 
 
 
Year Ended December 31, 2014
High
 
Low
Fourth Quarter
$
14.23

 
$
9.61

Third Quarter
$
13.88

 
$
9.30

Second Quarter
$
16.48

 
$
9.37

First Quarter
$
18.48

 
$
14.23

Holders of Record
As of March 14, 2016 , there were 78,648,407 shares of our common stock outstanding, which were held by approximately 91 stockholders of record, as reported by our transfer agent. The number of holders of record does not include a substantially greater number of "street name" holders or beneficial holders of our common stock whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.

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Dividend Policy
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Instead, we anticipate that all of our earnings on our common stock will be used to provide working capital, to support our operations and to finance the growth and development of our business. Any future determination to declare cash dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, any limitations contained in agreements governing our indebtedness, results of operations, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.
Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers
None.

ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
Since Row 44 was the accounting acquirer in the Business Combination, the presented financial information for the years ended December 31, 2011 and 2012 reflects the financial information and activities only of Row 44. The presented financial information for the year ended December 31, 2013 includes the financial information and activities of Row 44 for the period January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 (365 days) as well as the financial information and activities of the Company and AIA for the period January 31, 2013 to December 31, 2013 (335 days), Post Modern Edit, LLC and related entities (PMG) for the period July 10, 2013 to December 31, 2013 (174 days) and Travel Entertainment Group Equity Limited and subsidiaries ("IFES") for the period October 18, 2013 to December 31, 2013 (74 days).
The consolidated statements of operations data for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015, and the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2013, 2014 and 2015, are derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included in Item 15. Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules and previous filings on Form 10-K. The consolidated statements of operations for the year ended December 31, 2011 as well as the consolidated balance sheet data as of December 31, 2011 and 2012 are derived from audited consolidated financial statements of Row 44 not included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In conjunction with the Business Combination on January 31, 2013, outstanding shares of Row 44, par value $0.0001 common stock were converted into Global Eagle par value $0.0001 common stock. As Row 44 was deemed the accounting acquirer in the Business Combination, the historical financial information for the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 reflects the financial information and activities only of Row 44 as the predecessor entity. The historical equity of Row 44 has been retroactively adjusted to reflect the equity structure of Global Eagle Acquisition Corp. ("GEAC"), using the respective exchange ratios established in the Business Combination, which reflects the number of shares GEAC issued to equity holders of Row 44 at the Business Combination date. The retroactive revision of Row 44’s equity as of January 1, 2010 includes Row 44’s redeemable preferred stock, certain vested warrants and stock options had they been converted as of January 1, 2010, which is consistent with the terms of the transaction. Accordingly, all common and preferred shares and per share amounts for all periods presented in our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto relating to the periods covered in this Item 6 have been adjusted retrospectively, where applicable, to reflect the respective exchange ratios established in the Business Combination. For details on the Row 44 share conversion to Global Eagle common stock, refer to the Company’s definitive proxy statement on Schedule 14A filed with the SEC on January 17, 2013.
The historical results presented below are not necessarily indicative of financial results to be achieved in future periods, and certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform to the current year presentation. The following selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with Item 7. Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (in thousands):


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Year ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
426,030

 
387,735

 
$
259,722

 
69,210

 
33,637

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of Sales
279,156

 
281,873

 
197,938

 
76,897

 
35,947

Sales and marketing expenses
17,705

 
13,287

 
10,330

 
3,935

 
3,129

Product development
28,610

 
23,010

 
9,068

 
2,646

 
3,392

General and administrative
81,965

 
77,773

 
70,629

 
14,534

 
9,552

Amortization of intangible assets
26,994

 
24,552

 
17,281

 
34

 
25

Restructuring charges
411

 
4,223

 

 

 

Total operating expenses
434,841

 
424,718

 
305,246

 
98,046

 
52,045

Loss from operations
(8,811
)
 
(36,983
)
 
(45,524
)
 
(28,836
)
 
(18,408
)
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest (expense) income, net
(2,492
)
 
88

 
(2,417
)
 
(10,368
)
 
(233
)
Change in fair value of derivatives
11,938

 
(6,955
)
 
(63,961
)
 
(3,576
)
 

Other expense, net
(1,140
)
 
(2,770
)
 
(1,000
)
 
(23
)
 
(60
)
Loss before income taxes
(505
)
 
(46,620
)
 
(112,902
)
 
(42,803
)
 
(18,701
)
Income tax provision
1,621

 
10,574

 
1,839

 

 

Net loss
(2,126
)
 
(57,194
)
 
(114,741
)
 
(42,803
)
 
(18,701
)
Net income attributable to noncontrolling interest

 
194

 
290

 

 

Net loss attributable to Global Eagle Entertainment Inc. common stockholders
(2,126
)
 
(57,388
)
 
(115,031
)
 
(42,803
)
 
(18,701
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss per share - basic (1)
$
(0.03
)
 
$
(0.78
)
 
$
(2.17
)
 
$
(2.24
)
 
$
(1.35
)
Net loss per common share - diluted (1)
$
(0.18
)
 
$
(0.78
)
 
$
(2.17
)
 
$
(2.24
)
 
$
(1.35
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares - basic (1)
77,558

 
73,300

 
53,061

 
19,148

 
13,883

Weighted average common shares - diluted (1)
78,394

 
73,300

 
53,061

 
19,148

 
13,883

 
Year ended December 31,
Consolidated Balance Sheet Data:
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
2011
Cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities
$
223,552

 
$
197,648

 
$
258,796

 
$
2,088

 
$
8,810

Working capital
$
205,623

 
$
155,598

 
$
176,121

 
$
(3,799
)
 
$
(11,654
)
Total assets
$
639,539

 
$
533,595

 
$
578,883

 
$
29,437

 
$
23,931

Long term liabilities
$
119,863

 
$
46,654

 
$
39,577

 
$
3,111

 
$
2,703

Total stockholders' equity (deficit)
$
353,761

 
$
312,629

 
$
356,184

 
$
1,417

 
$
(9,147
)
(1)
On January 31, 2013 and in conjunction with the Business Combination, Row 44 common stock $0.0001 par value was converted into Global Eagle Entertainment Inc. common stock par value $0.0001. Immediately prior to the Business Combination, Row 44’s proportional adjustment to the existing conversion ratios for each series of preferred stock outstanding was effected in January 2009. Accordingly, all share and per share amounts for all periods presented have been adjusted retrospectively, where applicable, to reflect the stock conversion retrospectively to January 1, 2010.


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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
We make forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents incorporated by reference herein within the meaning of the Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements relate to expectations or forecasts for future events, including without limitation our earnings, revenues, expenses or other future financial or business performance or strategies, or the impact of legal or regulatory matters on our business, results of operations or financial condition. These statements may be preceded by, followed by or include the words “may,” “might,” “will,” “will likely result,” “should,” “estimate,” “plan,” “project,” “forecast,” “intend,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “seek,” “continue,” “target” or similar expressions. These forward-looking statements are based on information available to us as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and on our current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve substantial risks and uncertainties. Actual results may vary materially from those expressed or implied by the forward looking statements herein due to a variety of factors, including: our ability to integrate our acquired businesses, the ability of the combined business to grow, including through acquisitions which we are able to successfully integrate, and the ability of our executive officers to manage growth profitably; the ability of our customer Southwest Airlines to maintain a sponsor for its “TV Flies Free” offering and our ability to replicate this model through other sponsorship alliances; the outcome of any legal proceedings pending or that may be instituted against us, our subsidiaries, or third parties to whom we owe indemnification obligations; changes in laws or regulations that apply to us or our industry; our ability to recognize and timely implement future technologies in the satellite connectivity space, including GSM and Ka-band system development and deployment; our ability to capitalize on investments in developing our service offerings, including our long-term project with QEST to develop global antenna technologies; significant product development expenses associated with our long-term line-fit initiatives; our ability to deliver end-to-end network performance sufficient to meet increasing airline customer and passenger demand; our ability to obtain regulatory approval on a timely basis for the use of our equipment on aircraft; our ability to obtain and maintain international authorizations to operate our service over the airspace of foreign jurisdictions our customers utilize; our ability to expand our service offerings and deliver on our service roadmap; our ability to timely and cost-effectively identify and license television and media content that passengers will purchase; a decrease in the media content onboard IFE systems and/or the discontinuance of the use of IFE systems indefinitely due to the emergence and increase in the use of hand-held personal devices by airline passengers; general economic and technological circumstances in the satellite transponder market, including access to transponder space in capacity limited regions and successful launch of replacement transponder capacity where applicable; our ability to obtain and maintain licenses for content used on legacy installed IFE systems; the loss of, or failure to realize benefits from, agreements with our airline partners; the loss of relationships with original equipment manufacturers or dealers; unfavorable economic conditions in the airline industry and economy as a whole; our ability to expand our domestic or international operations, including our ability to grow our business with current and potential future airline partners or successfully partner with satellite service providers, including Hughes Network Systems and SES; our reliance on third-party satellite service providers and equipment and other suppliers, including single source providers and suppliers; the effects of service interruptions or delays, technology failures, material defects or errors in our software, damage to our equipment or geopolitical restrictions; the result of ongoing tax audit that could result in reduction of tax carryforwards; the limited operating history of our connectivity and in-flight television and media products; costs associated with defending pending or future intellectual property infringement actions and other litigation or claims; increases in our projected capital expenditures due to, among other things, unexpected costs incurred in connection with the roll out of our technology roadmap or our international plan of expansion; fluctuation in our operating results; the demand for in-flight broadband Internet access services and market acceptance for our products and services; our ability to generate sufficient cash flow to make payments on our indebtedness; our incurrence of additional indebtedness in the future; our ability to repay the convertible notes at maturing or to repurchase the convertible nets upon a fundamental chance or at specific repurchase dates; the effect of the conditional conversion feature of the convertible notes; our compliance with the covenants in our Credit Agreement; and other risks and uncertainties set forth herein. We do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements as a result of as a result of new information, future events or developments or otherwise.
The following discussion and analysis of our business and results of operations for the twelve months ended December 31, 2015 , and our financial conditions at that date, should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and the notes thereto included elsewhere in Item 15 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. As used herein, "Global Eagle

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Entertainment," "GEE," "the Company," "our," "we," or "us" and similar terms include Global Eagle Entertainment Inc. and its subsidiaries, unless the context indicates otherwise.

Overview of the Company
We are a leading full service provider of connectivity and content to the worldwide travel industry, as well as the non-theatrical markets in Canada and in the U.S. Our principal operations and decision-making functions are located in North America and Europe. We manage and report our businesses in two operating segments: Connectivity and Content. Our chief operating decision maker regularly reviews our operating results by our Connectivity and Content operating segments, principally to make decisions about how we allocate our resources and to measure our segment and consolidated operating performance. We currently generate a majority of our revenue through the licensing of content and providing our Wi-Fi and Content services to the airline industry, and to a lesser extent through the sale of network equipment to airlines. Our chief operating decision maker regularly reviews revenue and contribution profit on a segment basis, and our results of operations and pre-tax income or loss on a consolidated basis in order to gain more depth and understanding of the key business metrics driving our business. Accordingly, we report revenue and contribution profit for these segments separately.
For the years ended December 31, 2015 , 2014 , and 2013 , we reported revenue of $426.0 million , $387.7 million and $259.7 million , respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2015 , 2014 , and 2013 , our Content operating segment accounted for 72% , 72% and 70% of our total revenue, respectively, and our Connectivity operating segment accounted for 28% , 28% and 30% , respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2015 , 2014 , and 2013 , one airline customer, Southwest Airlines, accounted for 23% , 24% and 22% of our consolidated revenues, respectively.
2015 Transactions

In February 2015, we issued $82.5 million in principal amount of convertible senior notes due in 2035 (the “Convertible Notes”) in a private placement. In conjunction with the issuance of the Convertible Notes, we incurred issuance costs of $2.1 million, including fees paid to the initial purchasers who acted as intermediaries in the placement of the Convertible Notes.

In July and October 2015, we issued an aggregate 1.3 million shares of common stock in exchange for the surrender of public warrants exercisable for approximately 3.9 million shares of our common stock.
 
In July 2015, we acquired Western Outdoor Interactive Private Limited (“WOI”) and certain assets and assumed certain liabilities of RMG Networks Holding Corporation ("RMG") for an aggregate $40.5 million in cash and $3.1 million of contingent consideration. WOI produces and licenses games and applications for global in-flight entertainment, and provides technical services to third parties for global in-flight entertainment user interfaces. The RMG assets acquired were integrated into our existing advertising and sponsorship services, which provide digital media advertising and related services through airline clubs, in-flight entertainment systems, in-flight Wi-Fi portals and in private terminals. The acquisitions are intended to enhance our Content operating segment.

In August 2015, we purchased Marks Systems, Inc. (or “masFlight”) and NavAero Holding AB (“navAero”) for approximately $15.1 million in cash and $9.7 million of contingent consideration. $5.0 million of contingent consideration was paid in the fourth quarter of 2015 as the result of masFlight meeting certain milestones. masFlight pioneered the adoption of cloud-based technologies to collect, compile, link, validate and host a variety of information and offer a single solution enabling airlines to analyze predictive data to run their operations more effectively and efficiently. navAero is engaged in developing and commercializing technologies to enable and deploy electronic flight bag solutions for the commercial aviation market, which allows airlines to improve their in-flight operations. The acquisition is intended to enhance our Connectivity operating segment. 

In November 2015, we issued approximately 0.1 million shares of common stock upon the cashless exercise of approximately 0.3 million warrants that we assumed in connection with a prior acquisition, at an exercise price of $8.74 per share.


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Basis of Presentation
This analysis is presented on a consolidated basis. In addition, a brief description is provided of significant transactions and events that have an impact on the comparability of the results being analyzed. Due to our specific situation, the presented financial information for the year ended December 31, 2013 is only partially comparable to the financial information for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014. Through our Business Combination consummated on January 31, 2013, Row 44 was deemed the accounting acquirer in the presented financial information for the years ended December 31, 2012 and prior reflects the financial information and activities of Row 44 only. The presented financial information for the year ended December 31, 2013 includes the financial information and activities of Row 44 for the period January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 (365 days) as well as the financial information and activities of GEE and other acquisitions made in fiscal 2014, which include AIA for the period January 31, 2013 to December 31, 2013 (335 days), PMG for the period July 10, 2013 to December 31, 2013 (174 days) and IFES for the period October 18, 2013 to December 31, 2013 (74 days). This lack of comparability needs to be taken into account when reading the discussion and analysis of our results of operations and cash flows. Furthermore, the presented financial information for the year ended December 31, 2013 also contains other one-time costs that are directly associated with the Business Combination such as professional fees to support the Company's new and complex legal, tax, statutory and reporting requirements following the Business Combination.

Opportunities, Challenges and Risks
For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, we derived the majority of our revenue through the licensing and related services from our Content operating segment, and secondarily from Wi-Fi Internet service and the sale of equipment to airlines from our Connectivity operating segment. For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, the vast majority of our equipment and Wi-Fi Internet service revenue were generated by two airlines, Southwest Airlines and Norwegian Air Shuttle.

We believe our operating results and performance are driven by various factors that affect the commercial airline industry, including general macroeconomic trends affecting the travel industry, trends affecting our target user base, regulatory changes, competition and the rate of passenger adoption of our services, as well as factors that affect Wi-Fi Internet service providers in general. Growth in our Content and Connectivity operating segments is principally dependent upon the number of airlines that implement our services, our ability to negotiate favorable economic terms with our customers and partners, and the number of passengers who use our services. Growth in our margins is dependent on our ability to manage the costs associated with implementing and operating our services, including the costs of licensing and distributing content, equipment and satellite service. Our ability to attract and retain new and existing customers will be highly dependent on our abilities to implement our services on a timely basis and continually improve our network and operations as technology changes and as we experience increased network capacity constraints as we continue to grow.

As technology continues to evolve, we believe that there are opportunities to expand our services by adding more content in a greater variety of formats. Currently, our Content and Connectivity operating segments are separate platforms; however, we believe there is an opportunity to diversify our revenue long term by cross leveraging these services, including offering a greater variety of premium paid content across our Connectivity platform. For example, we acquired AIA, PMG and IFES in 2013 to accelerate our paid premium content opportunity. During 2014, we developed a system, WISE TM  that enables airlines to provide in-cabin Wi-Fi delivery of content to airline passengers' hand-held personal devices. Our first implementation of WISE TM  launched on a commercial airline during the second quarter of 2014. Conversely, the evolution of technology presents an inherent risk to our Content and Connectivity operating segments.  Today, we see large opportunities to expand our connectivity services in parts of the world where we will need to make substantial investments to improve our current service offerings. As a result and during 2015, we entered into a long-term development project with QEST to develop new global antenna technologies, and we expect to continue making significant product development investments to our existing connectivity technology solutions over the next twelve to eighteen months to address these opportunities. Our Connectivity platform utilizes leading satellite Ku-band systems and equipment today; however, with the introduction and evolution of more competitive technologies such as GSM and Ka-band satellite solutions, our current technology may become obsolete, too expensive and/or outdated.  On October 24, 2014, we entered into an agreement with SES for satellite capacity for the period that began in the first half of 2015 and continuing for ten years after the launch of a Ku-HTS satellite. The agreement with SES will provide us with global satellite coverage and the ability to participate in future technology improvements in Ku-band satellite solutions. In February 2015, we modified the terms of our current agreements with SES and Hughes to formalize a satellite capacity ordering structure whereby the Company will order SES-sourced satellite capacity through Hughes and Hughes will provide satellite performance and satellite coverage evaluation services to the Company. However, there is no guarantee that our existing or future satellite providers or solutions will be adequate to enable us to compete effectively with our competitors, and as a result we may lose customers to our competitors who offer more technologically evolved and/or less costly connectivity systems in the future.  Lastly, the future growth in our Content operating segment relies heavily on our airline customers continuing to utilize onboard in-flight entertainment (IFE) systems for their passengers to watch media

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content.  With the emergence and increased use of hand-held personal devices by airline passengers, our airline customers may decide to decrease the media content onboard IFE systems, and/or discontinue the use of IFE systems indefinitely.  This would adversely impact the future growth of our Content operating segment.
The use of our connectivity equipment on our customer’s planes is subject to regulatory approvals, such as a Supplemental Type Certificate, or “STC” that are imposed by agencies such as the Federal Aviation Agency (“FAA”) and the European Aviation Safety Agency (“EASA”). The costs to obtain an STC can be significant and vary by plane type and customer location. We have STCs to operate our equipment on several plane types, including Boeing’s 737, 757 and 777 families, and for the Airbus A320 family. While we believe we will be successful in obtaining STC approvals in the future as needed, there is a risk that neither the FAA nor EASA will approve an STC on a timely basis, if at all, and as a result, it could negatively impact our growth, relationships, and ability to deploy our future connectivity services with our customers. To partially address the risk and costs of obtaining STCs in the future, we recently signed an agreement with Boeing to commence the process for offering our connectivity equipment on a line-fit basis for Boeing’s 737 MAX and 787 models, and our Connectivity equipment became available as an option on new Boeing 737 airplanes. We also expect to undertake similar line-fit initiatives with other plane manufacturers such as Airbus in the near term. As a result, we expect to continue incurring significant product development expenses in the foreseeable future as we invest in these long-term line-fit opportunities, which we believe will improve our long-term ability to onboard our connectivity equipment on new plane types in a more scalable and cost-effective manner.

We are significantly dependent on certain key suppliers. Through December 31, 2015, our Connectivity operating segment purchased its satellite bandwidth from a single supplier, Hughes, which also provides us with certain equipment and servers required to deliver the satellite stream, rack space at the supplier's data centers to house the equipment and servers and network operations service support. We also purchase radomes, satellite antenna systems and rings from single suppliers. Any interruption in supply from these significant vendors could have a material impact on our ability to provide connectivity services to airline customers.

The growth of our Content segment is based upon a number of factors, including the growth of IFE systems, our customers' demand for content and games, the general availability of content to license from our studio partners, pricing from our competitors and our ability to manage the underlying economics of content licensing by studio. Due to the acquisitions of AIA, PMG and IFES throughout 2013, our Content segment revenue growth in 2014 as compared to 2013 was significant and not necessarily comparable between the two periods. As a result, we do not expect our Content segment to grow at the same historical levels in 2016 and 2015 as compared to 2014. While we do believe that the amount of IFE systems and customer demand for content and games will continue to grow in the foreseeable future, we do expect the overall growth in our Content segment to be more consistent with the overall IFE market growth in the near term.

The growth of our Connectivity segment is based upon a number of factors, including the rates at which we grow the number of installed base of connectivity systems from new and existing customers, customer demand for connectivity services, government regulations and approvals, passenger adoption, growth, take rates, and overall usage of our connectivity services, the general availability and pricing of satellite bandwidth globally, pricing pressures from our competitors, general travel industry trends, new and competing connectivity technologies, and our ability to manage the underlying economics of connectivity services on a global basis.  In February 2015, we raised capital through a private placement of convertible senior notes, a portion of which proceeds we plan to use in the near term for equipment financing arrangements. The long-term economics of any future agreement involving equipment financing could positively or negatively impact our liquidity, growth, Connectivity margins, relationships, and ability to deploy our future connectivity services with current or future customers.

Our consolidated cost of sales, the largest component of our operating expenses, can vary from period to period, particularly as a percentage of revenue, based upon the mix of the underlying equipment and service revenues we generate. In addition, our consolidated cost of sales will vary period to period as we acquire new customers and to accommodate the growth of our connectivity segment. Over the past twelve months, the growth from our Connectivity segment improved our overall operating margins. As a result, our cost of sales as a percentage of our revenue improved throughout the trailing twelve months ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the same comparable period ended December 31, 2014. In the second half of 2015, we increased our investment in satellite capacity over North America and the Middle East to facilitate the growth of our existing and new connectivity customer base, which included a $6.7 million capital purchase of satellite transponders. Depending on the timing of our satellite expenditures, our consolidated cost of sales as a percentage of our revenue may fluctuate from period to period.

In July 2013, our customer Southwest Airlines announced “TV Flies Free” under which Southwest Airlines passengers using Internet-ready personal devices have free access to live television and up to 75 on-demand shows on the airline's more than 400 Wi-Fi-enabled aircraft powered by us. TV Flies Free initially was exclusively sponsored by DISH Network

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Corporation through December 31, 2014. In 2015, new sponsors including JPMorgan Chase & Co. were obtained for TV Flies Free. A significant amount of the revenue we generate from the TV Flies Free program is indirectly provided by the program’s sponsors. Should sponsorship revenue not be available to Southwest Airlines from third parties, Southwest Airlines is under no contractual obligation to offer free access to live television and on-demand shows to its passengers. As a result, there can be no assurance that we will continue to receive the same level of revenues from Southwest Airlines and Connectivity service revenue in future periods may fluctuate accordingly.

During the third quarter of 2015, we completed acquisitions of Western Outdoor Interactive ("WOI"), certain assets from RMG Networks Holding Corporation (NASDAQ:RMGN) ("RMG"), masFlight, Inc. and navAero, Inc. for an aggregate cash purchase price of $60.2 million, including $5.0 million of cash paid as contingent consideration. WOI and assets from RMG were acquired to strengthen and increase the scope of our service offerings, including expanding our digital media and content services, and providing us with increased integrated solutions to meet the digital media and content service demands of the airline and maritime markets. masFlight, the industry's leading operational data analytics platform, and navAero, the industry's leading developer of cutting-edge EFB (Electronic Flight Bag) and cockpit data solutions together form the foundation of our new operations solutions services, leveraging next-generation aircraft connectivity to create a revolutionary new platform that helps airlines improve operations, realize cost efficiencies, and enhance the overall passenger experience. During the last half of 2015, the aggregate financial results from these acquisitions were not significant in comparison to our existing operations. Beyond 2015, however, we believe the long-term growth opportunities are significant for our digital media and operations solutions services, and as a result we expect to make significant operating investments throughout 2016 to facilitate these long-term growth opportunities.

In 2014, we commenced integration and formal restructuring activities of our 2013 acquisitions of AIA, PMG and IFES to support future growth. In September 2014, we announced and commenced our formal restructuring plan (the “Plan”), and we began realizing significant cost savings from the Plan throughout 2015. In addition, in the first half of 2015 and 2016, we initiated further integration activities that we believe will help us to further accelerate our operating margin in 2016 and beyond.

For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, a substantial amount of our Connectivity revenue was derived from airlines located in the United States. While our Connectivity revenue is primarily generated through airlines based in the United States today, we believe that there is a substantial opportunity in the longer term for us to significantly expand our Connectivity operating segment's service offerings to airlines based in countries outside of the United States. In 2014, we announced partnerships in Europe with Orange and with China Telecom Communications Co., LTD and IP Star International PTE Limited, an affiliate of Thaicom, to jointly work to expand our Connectivity services within the broader Asia and European markets. In June 2015, we announced a new Connectivity agreement with Dubai Aviation Corporation ("flydubai"), an airline located in the Middle East. In December 2015, we announced a new Connectivity agreement with Shareco, a joint venture between China’s Hainan Airlines and Beijing Capital Airlines.

We plan to further expand our Connectivity operations internationally to address these opportunities. As we expand our business further internationally in places such as the Middle East, Asia Pacific and Latin America, we will continue to incur significant incremental upfront expenses associated with these growth opportunities.


Key Components of Consolidated Statements of Operations
The following briefly describes certain key components of revenue and expenses as presented in our consolidated statements of operations.
Revenue
Our revenue is derived from our Connectivity and Content operating segments.
Connectivity Segment
We currently generate our Connectivity revenue through the sale of equipment and through our Wi-Fi Internet and related service offerings. Our equipment revenue is based on the sale and corresponding support of our connectivity equipment to our commercial airline customers. Our service revenue is based on the fees paid by airlines and/or airline passengers for the delivery of in-flight services, such as Internet access and live television, and to a lesser extent from revenue sharing arrangements with commercial airlines for Internet based services used by their passengers, such as shopping.

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Where we enter into revenue sharing arrangements with our customers, and we act as the primary obligor, we report the underlying revenue on a gross basis in our consolidated statements of operations, and record the revenue-sharing payments to our customers in costs of sales. In determining whether to report revenue gross for the amount of fees received from our customers, we assess whether we maintain the principal relationship, bear credit risk and have latitude in establishing prices with the airlines.
Included in our Connectivity service revenue are periodic service level credits, which vary from airline to airline and are based on the contracted service levels we provide over any given period.
Content Segment
A significant amount of our Content revenue is generated from licensing of acquired and third party media content, video and music programming, applications, and video games to the airline industry, and secondarily from services ranging from selection, purchase, production, customer support and technical adjustment of content in connection with the integration and servicing of IFE programs. Our Content licensing revenue is based upon individual licensing agreements with the airlines to deliver and air content over specified terms. Content services revenue, such as technical services, the encoding of video products, development of graphical interfaces or the provision of materials, is priced on specific services contracted for and recognized as services are performed.
Operating Expenses
Operating expenses consist of cost of sales, sales and marketing, product development, general and administrative, and amortization of intangible assets. Included in our operating expenses are stock based compensation and depreciation expenses associated with our capital expenditures.
Cost of Sales
Connectivity Segment Cost of Sales
Connectivity segment cost of sales consists of the costs of our equipment and services.
Equipment. Equipment costs of sales are substantially comprised of the costs paid to procure our equipment for services. Equipment costs are principally comprised of the costs we pay to third parties to facilitate our equipment orders, and are originally classified as inventory on our balance sheet upon receipt of goods. Upon sale, equipment costs of sales are recorded when title and risk of loss pass to the customer, which is aligned with our equipment revenue recognition. As we continue to grow our installed base of Connectivity customers throughout 2016 and beyond, coupled with our recent decision to provide a new customer with upfront financial incentives on our equipment, we expect our equipment sales and the corresponding equipment costs of sales not to be comparable to historical results.
Services. Service costs of sales principally consist of the costs of satellite service and support, revenue recognized by us and shared with others as a result of our revenue-sharing arrangements, Internet connection and co-location charges and other platform operating expenses including depreciation of the systems and hardware used to build and operate our platform; and personnel costs related to our network operations, customer service and information technology. As we continue to build out our Connectivity services platform and expand our satellite coverage globally, we anticipate that our service costs will increase when compared to historical periods. Our services cost of sales are dependent on a number of factors, including the amount of satellite coverage and bandwidth required to operate our services and the number of partners we share our corresponding revenue with.
Content Segment Cost of Sales
Content segment cost of sales principally consists of licensing fees paid to acquire content rights for the airline industry, and to a lesser extent service and personnel costs to support our Content business.

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Sales and Marketing
Sales and marketing expenses consist primarily of sales and marketing personnel costs, sales support, public relations, advertising, marketing and general promotional expenditures. Fluctuations in our sales and marketing expenses are generally the result of our efforts to support the growth in our businesses, including expenses required to support the expansion of our direct sales force. We currently anticipate that our sales and marketing expenses will continue to increase throughout 2016, but remain consistent as a percent of revenue when compared to 2015, as we continue to grow our sales and marketing organizations and invest in marketing activities to support the growth of our businesses.
Product Development
Product development expenses consist primarily of expenses incurred in our software engineering, product development and web portal design activities and related personnel costs. Fluctuations in our product development expenses are generally the result of hiring personnel to support and develop our platform, including the costs to further develop our Connectivity segment platform, timing and scope of our STC efforts, new connectivity product offerings, expenses associated with line-fit offerability and network operations. We currently anticipate that our product development expenses will increase in the near term, and more significantly in 2016, as we continue to hire more product development personnel and further develop our products and offerings to support the growth of our business. However, in 2016, we expect our product development expense as a percentage of revenue to be comparable to 2015.
General and Administrative
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of personnel costs from our executive, legal, finance, human resources and information technology organizations and facilities related expenditures, as well as third party professional fees, insurance and bad debt expenses. Professional fees are largely comprised of outside legal, accounting audit, information technology consulting and legal settlements. We anticipate general and administrative expenses in 2016 to remain consistent in 2015.
Amortization of Intangibles
The Company determines the appropriate useful life of intangible assets by performing an analysis of expected cash flows based on its historical experience of intangible assets of similar quality and value. We expect amortization expense to fluctuate in the near term as we increase identifiable intangible assets acquired in the acquisitions made in the second half of 2015. Amortization as a percentage of revenue will depend upon a variety of factors, such as the amounts and mix of our identifiable intangible assets acquired in business combinations.
Stock-based Compensation
Included in our operating expenses are expenses associated with stock-based compensation, which are allocated and included in costs of sales, sales and marketing, product development and general and administrative expenses as necessary. Stock-based compensation expense is largely comprised of costs associated with stock options and restricted stock units granted to employees and certain non-employees including directors and consultants. We record the fair value of these equity-based awards and expense at their cost ratably over related vesting periods. In addition, stock-based compensation expense includes the cost of warrants to purchase common stock issued to certain non-employees.
As of December 31, 2015 , we had approximately $14.1 million of unrecognized employee related stock-based compensation, net of estimated forfeitures, which we expect to recognize over a weighted average period of approximately 2.67 years . Stock-based compensation expense is expected to increase throughout 2016 as compared to 2015 as a result of our existing unrecognized stock-based compensation and as we issue additional stock-based awards to continue to attract and retain employees and non-employee directors.
Restructuring
During the third quarter ended September 30, 2014, the Company implemented a plan to improve operational efficiencies, which included the closure of its German-based operations and facilities, centralization of its international financial operations, and realignment of its international and U.S. tax structure (the “Plan”). During 2014, in conjunction with the Plan, the Company committed to a reduction in force. As of September 23, 2014, the Company communicated the reduction to affected employees. The Company substantially completed the implementation of its Plan by the third quarter of 2015.

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The Company estimated that $4.7 million to $5.2 million of restructuring charges would be incurred in connection with the Plan, including:
(1)
The Company estimated that it would incur total expenses relating to employee termination benefits, which primarily include severance and transitional-related expenses, of approximately $2.7 million , all of which represents cash expenditures which were incurred and expensed through December 31, 2015.
(2)
In connection with the closure of its German operations pursuant to the Plan, the Company disposed of approximately 11000 square feet of leased facilities in Duisburg and Munich, Germany, representing approximately 6% of its global facilities square footage. The Company incurred an aggregate of approximately $0.4 million of facilities disposal charges pursuant to the Plan through December 31, 2015.
(3)
From the third quarter of 2014 through the fourth quarter of 2015, the Company anticipated to incur periodic restructuring expenditures in an aggregate amount of $1.5 million to $2.0 million , comprised of legal and professional fees associated with the execution of the Plan. Through December 31, 2015, the Company incurred and expensed approximately $1.5 million in legal and professional fees in connection with the Plan.
Other Income (Expense)
Other income (expense) principally consists of changes in the fair value of our derivative financial instruments, interest on outstanding debt associated with our foreign notes payable and interest earned on cash balances and short-term investments, income or loss from our equity-method investments and certain unrealized transaction gains and losses on foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities. We typically invest our available cash balances in money market funds and short-term United States Treasury obligations. We expect our transaction gains and losses will vary depending upon movements in underlying currency exchange rates, and could become significant in 2016 with the expected improvement in the U.S. dollar against foreign currencies such as the Euro and Canadian dollar.
Provision for Income Taxes
Since our inception, we have been subject to income taxes principally in the United States, and more recently with the acquisition of AIA in January 2013, PMG in July 2013, and IFES in October 2013, WOI in 2015 and NavAero in 2015 in other countries where we have a legal presence, including Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Canada, China, India, Hong Kong, Sweden and the United Arab Emirates. We anticipate that as we continue to expand our operations outside the United States, we will become subject to taxation based on the foreign statutory rates and our effective tax rate could fluctuate accordingly.
Income taxes are computed using the asset and liability method, under which deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to affect taxable income. Valuation allowances are established when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount expected to be realized.
We currently believe that based on the available information, it is more likely than not that some of our deferred tax assets will not be realized, and accordingly we have recorded a valuation allowance against certain of our federal, state and foreign deferred tax assets. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014 we had approximately $91.9 million and $128.4 million of federal and $40.5 million and $64.8 million, respectively, of state operating loss carry-forwards available to offset future taxable income which expire in varying amounts beginning in 2026 for federal and 2017 for state purposes if unused. Federal and state laws impose substantial restrictions on the utilization of net operating loss and tax credit carry-forwards in the event of an “ownership change,” as defined in Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Internal Revenue Code. Currently, we expect the utilization of our net operating loss and tax credit carry-forwards in the near term to be affected by certain limitations placed on these carry-forwards as a result of our previous ownership changes with PAR, our largest stockholder.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our consolidated financial statements are prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses and related disclosures. We evaluate our estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. Our estimates are based on historical experience and various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Our actual results could differ from these estimates.

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We believe that the assumptions and estimates associated with our revenue recognition, accounts receivable and allowance for doubtful accounts, capitalization and useful lives associated with our intangible assets, including our internal software and website development and content costs, income taxes, derivative financial instruments, stock-based compensation and the recoverability of our goodwill and long-lived assets, have the greatest potential impact on our consolidated financial statements. Therefore, we consider these to be our critical accounting policies and estimates.
Revenue Recognition
We recognize revenue when four basic criteria are met: persuasive evidence of a sales arrangement exists; performance of services has occurred; the sales price is fixed or determinable; and collectability is reasonably assured. We consider persuasive evidence of a sales arrangement to be the receipt of a signed contract. Collectability is assessed based on a number of factors, including transaction history and the credit worthiness of a customer. If it is determined that collection is not reasonably assured, revenue is not recognized until collection becomes reasonably assured, which is generally upon receipt of cash. We record cash received in advance of revenue recognition as deferred revenue .
We have determined, among other criteria that we are the primary obligor in the fulfillment of our Connectivity and Content services. As a result, we report revenue on a gross basis in our consolidated statements of operations for both segments.
Connectivity Equipment Revenue
Connectivity equipment revenue is generated as title and risk of our equipment sales pass to our customers, which is generally upon shipment or arrival at destination depending on the contractual arrangement with the customer. In determining whether an arrangement exists, we ensure that a binding arrangement is in place, such as a standard purchase order or a fully executed customer-specific agreement. In cases where a customer has the contractual ability to accept or return equipment within a specific time frame, we will provide for return reserves when and if necessary, based upon historical experience.
Connectivity Service Revenue
Our Connectivity service revenue includes in-flight Wi-Fi Internet services, live television, on-demand content, shopping and travel-related information. Service revenue is recognized after it has been rendered and the customer can use the service, which is in the form of (i) enplanement for boarded passengers, (ii) usage by passengers, depending upon the specific contract, and (iii) other revenue such as advertising sponsorship.
Content Licensing Revenue
Content licensing revenue is principally generated through the sale or license of media content, video and music programming, applications, and video games to airlines, and to a lesser extent, through various services such as encoding and editing of media content. Revenue from the sale or license of content is recognized when the content has been delivered and the contractual performance obligations have been fulfilled, generally at the time a customer's license period begins.
Content Services Revenue
Content services revenue, such as technical services or the provision of materials, is billed and recognized as services are performed.
Accounts Receivable and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
Accounts receivable primarily consist of amounts due from airlines or third parties who we provide services to, including our Connectivity and Content related services, advertising services through our platform and sales of our equipment. Accounts receivable from these providers are recorded when we earn the underlying revenue, and are generally due within 30 to 45 days from the month-end in which the invoice is generated.
We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts to reserve for potentially uncollectible receivables from our customers based on our best estimate of the amount of probable losses from existing accounts receivable. We determine the allowance based on analysis of historical bad debts, advertiser concentrations, advertiser credit-worthiness and current economic trends. In addition, past due balances over 90 days and specific other balances are reviewed individually for collectability on at least a quarterly basis.

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Goodwill
Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquired entity over the fair value of the acquired net assets. We perform our annual impairment test of goodwill on October 1st of our fiscal year or when events or circumstances change that would indicate that goodwill might be impaired, including, but not limited to, a significant adverse change in legal factors or in the business climate, an adverse action or assessment by a regulator, unanticipated competition, a loss of key personnel, significant changes in the manner of our use of the acquired assets or the strategy for our overall business, significant negative industry or economic trends or significant under-performance relative to expected historical or projected future results of operations.
Goodwill is tested for impairment at the reporting unit level, which is one level below or the same as an operating segment. In accordance with amended FASB guidance for goodwill impairment testing, we performed a qualitative assessment for our reporting units which management estimates each have fair values that significantly exceed their respective carrying values. For each reporting unit, we weighed the relative impact of factors that are specific to the reporting unit as well as industry and macroeconomic factors. The reporting unit specific factors that we considered included financial performance and changes to the reporting units' carrying amounts. For each reporting unit, we considered assumptions about sales, operating margins, and growth rates which are based on our forecasts, business plans, economic projections, anticipated future cash flows and marketplace data. We also assessed the impact of macroeconomic factors on the discount rates and growth rates used for the most recent impairment tests, and determine if they would significantly affect the fair value of our reporting units. As of December 31, 2015 , the Company concluded that for each of its reporting units, it is more likely than not that the fair value of each reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount and that it was therefore unnecessary to perform any additional impairment tests as of such date.
Useful Lives Associated with our Intangible Assets, including Internal Software and Website Development Costs
We have capitalized certain identifiable intangible assets acquired in connection with business combinations and we use valuation techniques to value these intangibles assets, with the primary technique being a discounted cash flow analysis. A discounted cash flow analysis requires us to make various judgmental assumptions and estimates including projected revenues, operating costs, growth rates, useful lives and discount rates. Beginning in the first half of 2013, we also began capitalizing our internally developed software and platform development costs during their development phase .
We amortize our intangible assets acquired through business combinations on a straight-line basis over the period in which the underlying economic benefits are expected to be realized. Internally developed software and website development costs are depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful life, which is generally no greater than three years.
Recoverability of Long-lived Assets
We evaluate the recoverability of our intangible assets, and other long-lived assets with finite useful lives for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset group may not be recoverable. These trigger events or changes in circumstances include, but are not limited to a significant decrease in the market price of a long-lived asset, a significant adverse change in the extent or manner in which a long-lived asset is being used, significant adverse changes in legal factors, including changes that could result from our inability to renew or replace material agreements with certain of our partners such as Southwest Airlines on favorable terms, significant adverse changes in the business climate including changes which may result from adverse shifts in technology in our industry and the impact of competition, a significant adverse deterioration in the amount of revenue or cash flows we expect to generate from an asset group, an accumulation of costs significantly in excess of the amount originally expected for the acquisition or development of a long-lived asset, current or future operating or cash flow losses that demonstrate continuing losses associated with the use of our long-lived asset, or a current expectation that, more likely than not, a long-lived asset will be sold or otherwise disposed of significantly before the end of its previously estimated useful life. We perform impairment testing at the asset group level that represents the lowest level for which identifiable cash flows are largely independent of the cash flows of other assets and liabilities. In making this determination, we consider the specific operating characteristics of the relevant long-lived assets, including (i) the nature of the direct and any indirect revenues generated by the assets; (ii) the interdependency of the revenues generated by the assets; and (iii) the nature and extent of any shared costs necessary to operate the assets in their intended use. An impairment test would be performed when the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset group is less than its carrying amount. Impairment is measured by assessing the usefulness of an asset by comparing its carrying value to its fair value. If an asset is considered impaired, the impairment loss is measured as the amount by which the carrying value of the asset group exceeds its estimated fair value. Fair value is determined based upon estimated discounted future cash flows. The key estimates applied when preparing cash flow projections relate to revenue, operating margins, economic lives of assets, overheads, taxation and discount rates. To date, we have not recognized any such impairment loss associated with our long-lived assets.

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Income Taxes
We account for our income taxes using the liability and asset method, which requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in our financial statements or in our tax returns. In estimating future tax consequences, generally all expected future events other than enactments or changes in the tax law or rates are considered. Deferred income taxes are recognized for differences between financial reporting and tax bases of assets and liabilities at the enacted statutory tax rates in effect for the years in which the temporary differences are expected to reverse. The effect on deferred taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. We evaluate the realizability of our deferred tax assets and valuation allowances are provided when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized.
We operate in various tax jurisdictions and are subject to audit by various tax authorities. We provide tax contingencies whenever it is deemed probable that a tax asset has been impaired or a tax liability has been incurred for events such as tax claims or changes in tax laws. Tax contingencies are based upon their technical merits, and relevant tax law and the specific facts and circumstances as of each reporting period. Changes in facts and circumstances could result in material changes to the amounts recorded for such tax contingencies.
We recognize a tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the consolidated financial statements from such positions are then measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement. We recognize interest and penalties accrued related to unrecognized tax benefits in our income tax (benefit) provision in our statements of operations.
We calculate our current and deferred tax provisions based on estimates and assumptions that could differ from the actual results reflected in income tax returns filed in subsequent years. Adjustments based on filed returns are recorded when identified. The amount of income taxes we pay is subject to ongoing audits by federal, state and foreign tax authorities. Our estimate of the potential outcome of any uncertain tax issue is subject to management's assessment of relevant risks, facts, and circumstances existing at that time. To the extent that our assessment of such tax positions changes, the change in estimate is recorded in the period in which the determination is made.
Derivative Financial Instruments
Derivative financial instruments include certain warrants to purchase shares of our stock that are accounted for on a fair value basis. Embedded derivative instruments subject to bifurcation are also accounted for on a fair value basis. The period to period change in fair value of derivatives is recorded through earnings. Cash flows from embedded derivatives subject to bifurcation are reported consistently with the host contracts within the statements of cash flows. Cash flows from other derivatives are reported in cash flows from investing activities within the statements of cash flows.
The Company sometimes uses derivative financial instruments such as interest rate swaps to hedge interest rate risks. These derivatives are recognized at fair value on the transaction date and subsequently remeasured at fair value. Derivatives are measured as financial assets when their fair value is positive and as financial liabilities when their fair value is negative. Gains or losses on changes in the fair value of derivatives are recognized immediately in the statement of operations as a component of other income (expense).
Stock-based Compensation
We measure and recognize compensation expense for all share-based payment awards made to employees and directors based on the grant date fair values of the awards. For stock option awards to employees with service and/or performance based vesting conditions, the fair value is estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The value of an award that is ultimately expected to vest is recognized as expense over the requisite service periods in our consolidated statements of operations. We elected to treat share-based payment awards, other than performance awards, with graded vesting schedules and time-based service conditions as a single award and recognize stock-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis (net of estimated forfeitures) over the requisite service period. Stock-based compensation expenses are classified in the statement of operations based on the department to which the related employee reports. Our stock-based awards are comprised principally of stock options.
We account for stock options issued to non-employees in accordance with the guidance for equity-based payments to non-employees. Stock option awards to non-employees are accounted for at fair value using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Our management believes that the fair value of stock options is more reliably measured than the fair value of the

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services received. The fair value of the unvested portion of the options granted to non-employees is re-measured each period. The resulting increase in value, if any, is recognized as expense during the period the related services are rendered.
The Black-Scholes option pricing model requires management to make assumptions and to apply judgment in determining the fair value of our awards. The most significant assumptions and judgments include estimating the fair value of our underlying stock, the expected volatility and the expected term of the award. In addition, the recognition of stock-based compensation expense is impacted by estimated forfeiture rates.
Because the accounting acquirer’s common stock was not publicly traded prior to February 1, 2013, we estimated the expected volatility of our awards from the historical volatility of selected public companies within the technology and media industries with comparable characteristics to us, including similarity in size, lines of business, market capitalization, revenue and financial leverage. From our inception through December 31, 2015 , the weighted average expected life of options was calculated using the simplified method as prescribed under guidance by the SEC. This decision was based on the lack of relevant historical data due to our limited experience and the lack of an active market for our common stock. The risk free interest rate is based on the implied yield currently available on U.S. Treasury issues with terms approximately equal to the expected life of the option. The expected dividend rate is zero based on the fact that we currently have no history or expectation of paying cash dividends on our common stock. The forfeiture rate is established based on the historical average period of time that options were outstanding and adjusted for expected changes in future exercise patterns.

Results of Operations
The following tables set forth our results of operations for the periods presented. The period-to-period comparison of financial results is not necessarily indicative of future results (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Revenue
$
426,030

 
$
387,735

 
$
259,722

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of sales
279,156

 
281,873

 
197,938

Sales and marketing expenses
17,705

 
13,287

 
10,330

Product development
28,610

 
23,010

 
9,068

General and administrative
81,965

 
77,773

 
70,629

Amortization of intangible assets
26,994

 
24,552

 
17,281

Restructuring charges
411

 
4,223

 

Total operating expenses
434,841

 
424,718

 
305,246

Loss from operations
(8,811
)
 
(36,983
)
 
(45,524
)
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
Interest income (expense), net
(2,492
)
 
88

 
(2,417
)
Change in fair value of derivatives
11,938

 
(6,955
)
 
(63,961
)
Other expense, net
(1,140
)
 
(2,770
)
 
(1,000
)
Loss before income taxes
(505
)
 
(46,620
)
 
(112,902
)
Income tax provision
1,621

 
10,574

 
1,839

Net loss
(2,126
)
 
(57,194
)
 
(114,741
)
Net income attributable to non-controlling interest

 
194

 
290

Net loss attributable to Global Eagle Entertainment Inc. common stockholders
$
(2,126
)
 
$
(57,388
)
 
$
(115,031
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net loss per share - basic
$
(0.03
)
 
$
(0.78
)
 
$
(2.17
)
Net loss per common share - diluted
$
(0.18
)
 
$
(0.78
)
 
$
(2.17
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted average common shares - basic
77,558

 
73,300

 
53,061

Weighted average common shares - diluted
78,394

 
73,300

 
53,061


49


The following table provides the depreciation expense included in the above line items (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Depreciation expense:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of sales
$
2,957

 
$
2,820

 
$
1,113

Sales and marketing
893

 
471

 

Product development
1,443

 
858

 
71

General and administrative
4,154

 
3,030

 
2,719

Total depreciation expense
$
9,447

 
$
7,179

 
$
3,903

The following table provides the stock-based compensation expense included in the above line items (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
Stock-based compensation expense:
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Cost of sales
$
322

 
$
36

 
$

Sales and marketing expenses
701

 
46

 

Product development
1,020

 
268

 

General and administrative
6,192

 
7,717

 
4,536

Total stock-based compensation expense
$
8,235

 
$
8,067

 
$
4,536

The following table provides our results of operations, as a percentage of revenue, for the periods presented:
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
Revenue
100
 %
 
100
 %
 
100
 %
Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of sales
66
 %
 
73
 %
 
76
 %
Sales and marketing expenses
4
 %
 
3
 %
 
4
 %
Product development
7
 %
 
6
 %
 
3
 %
General and administrative
19
 %
 
20
 %
 
27
 %
Amortization of intangible assets
6
 %
 
6
 %
 
7
 %
Restructuring charges
 %
 
1
 %
 
 %
Total operating expenses
102
 %
 
110
 %
 
118
 %
Loss from operations
(2
)%
 
(10
)%
 
(18
)%
Other income (expense)
2
 %
 
(3
)%
 
(26
)%
Loss before income taxes
 %
 
(12
)%
 
(43
)%
Income tax provision
 %
 
3
 %
 
1
 %
Net loss
 %
 
(15
)%
 
(44
)%
Net income attributable to non-controlling interest
 %
 
 %
 
 %
Net loss attributable to Global Eagle Entertainment Inc. common stockholders
 %
 
(15
)%
 
(44
)%

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Operating Segments
The following tables set forth our contribution profit for each operating segment in the periods presented (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
Content
 
Connectivity
 
Consolidated
 
Content
 
Connectivity
 
Consolidated
 
Content
 
Connectivity
 
Consolidated
Revenue:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Licensing
$
308,153

 
$
96,906

 
$
405,059

 
$
277,389

 
$
74,839

 
$
352,228

 
$
181,885

 
$
51,350

 
$
233,235

Equipment

 
20,971

 
20,971

 

 
35,507

 
35,507

 

 
26,487

 
26,487

Total Revenue
308,153

 
117,877

 
426,030

 
277,389

 
110,346

 
387,735

 
181,885

 
77,837

 
259,722

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating Expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of Sales
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Licensing and Services
203,693

 
57,942

 
261,635

 
195,454

 
54,881

 
250,335

 
134,207

 
42,590

 
176,797

Equipment

 
17,521

 
17,521

 

 
31,538

 
31,538

 

 
21,141

 
21,141

Total Cost of Sales
203,693

 
75,463

 
279,156

 
195,454

 
86,419

 
281,873

 
134,207

 
63,731

 
197,938

Contribution Profit
104,460

 
42,414

 
146,874

 
81,935

 
23,927

 
105,862

 
47,678

 
14,106

 
61,784

Other Operating Expenses
 
 
 
 
155,685

 
 
 
 
 
142,845

 
 
 
 
 
107,308

Loss from Operations
 
 
 
 
(8,811
)
 
 
 
 
 
(36,983
)
 
 
 
 
 
(45,524
)
Other income (expense)
 
 
 
 
8,306

 
 
 
 
 
(9,637
)
 
 
 
 
 
(67,378
)
Loss before income taxes
 
 
 
 
(505
)
 
 
 
 
 
(46,620
)
 
 
 
 
 
(112,902
)
Income tax provision
 
 
 
 
1,621

 
 
 
 
 
10,574

 
 
 
 
 
1,839

Net loss
 
 
 
 
$
(2,126
)
 
 
 
 
 
$
(57,194
)
 
 
 
 
 
$
(114,741
)
Revenue
Connectivity operating segment revenue was as follows (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014 to 2015
 
2013 to 2014
Service
$
96,906

 
$
74,839

 
$
51,350

 
29
 %
 
46
%
Equipment
20,971

 
35,507

 
26,487

 
(41
)%
 
34
%
Total Revenue Connectivity Segment
$
117,877

 
$
110,346

 
$
77,837

 
7
 %
 
42
%
Connectivity Service Revenue
2015 compared to 2014 . Connectivity service revenue increased $22.1 million or 29% to $96.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 , as compared to $74.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 . The increase was principally due to higher take rates and the growth in users of our Wi-Fi Internet services on Southwest Airlines, which was driven by a higher number of Southwest Airlines planes offering our Connectivity services for the year ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the year ended December 31, 2014.
2014 compared to 2013 . Connectivity service revenue increased $23.5 million , or 46% , to $74.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 , as compared to $51.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 . The increase was principally due to the growth in users of our Wi-Fi Internet services on Southwest Airlines, which was driven by a higher number of Southwest Airlines planes offering our Connectivity services in 2014 as compared to 2013, coupled with the commencement of TV Flies Free service on Southwest Airlines in July 2013.

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Connectivity Equipment Revenue
2015 compared to 2014 . Connectivity equipment revenue decreased $14.5 million , or 41% , to $21.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 , as compared to $35.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 . The decrease was primarily due to the timing of equipment installations on newly commissioned planes.
2014 compared to 2013 . Connectivity equipment revenue increased by $31.4 million, or 54%, to $26.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2013, as compared to $57.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2012. The increase was primarily due to the timing of equipment shipments on the Southwest Airlines fleet in 2014 as compared to 2013.
Content operating segment revenue was as follows (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014 to 2015
 
2013 to 2014
Licensing and services
$
308,153

 
$
277,389

 
$
181,885

 
11
%
 
53
%
Total Revenue Content Segment
$
308,153

 
$
277,389

 
$
181,885

 
11
%
 
53
%
Content Licensing and Services Revenue
2015 compared to 2014 . Content licensing and services revenue increased $30.8 million or 11% to $308.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to $277.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 .  The increase was principally due to the timing of the on-boarding of certain significant Content customers, and period-over-period revenue growth from existing Content customers, and revenue from new acquisitions, which were acquired in the third quarter of 2015.
2014 compared to 2013 . Content licensing and services revenue increased to $95.5 million or 53% to $277.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to $181.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 . The increase was primarily due to the acquisitions of PMG and IFES, which we acquired on July 10, 2013 and October 18, 2013, respectively, and were not part of our operations during the full year in 2013. When combined, PMG and IFES generated approximately $59.0 million of licensing and services revenue in the year ended December 31, 2014 during periods each were not a part of the Company’s operations during 2013. The remaining increase of $36.5 million was largely due to AIA, which we acquired on January 31, 2013 and was only a part of our operations for a partial period during the year ended December 31, 2013, coupled with the addition of new Content customers in 2014.
Cost of Sales
Connectivity operating segment cost of sales was as follows (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014 to 2015
 
2013 to 2014
Service
$
57,942

 
$
54,881

 
$
42,590

 
6
 %
 
29
%
Equipment
17,521

 
31,538

 
21,141

 
(44
)%
 
49
%
Total Connectivity Cost of Sales
$
75,463

 
$
86,419

 
$
63,731

 
(13
)%
 
36
%
2015 compared to 2014 . Connectivity cost of sales decreased $11.0 million or 13% to $75.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to $86.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 . The decrease was due to a $14.0 million decrease in Connectivity equipment cost of sales, partially offset by a $3.1 million increase in Connectivity services cost of sales. The decrease in Connectivity equipment cost of sales was principally due to a decrease in equipment revenue over the same period as a result of the timing of equipment shipments on newly commissioned planes. The decrease was offset by a  $3.1 million  increase in Connectivity service cost of sales largely due to higher licensing fees to support the growth in Connectivity service revenue over the same period.
As a percentage of Connectivity equipment revenue, Connectivity equipment cost of sales was 84% during 2015 as compared to 89% during 2014, a decrease of 500 basis points. The period over period change in contribution margin was primarily due to a higher mix of equipment installations on the Southwest Airlines fleet in 2015, as compared to 2014, which were sold at less favorable margins as compared to other airlines.

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Table of Contents

As a percentage of Connectivity service revenue, Connectivity services cost of sales was 60% during the year ended December 31, 2015 as compared to 73% during the year ended December 31, 2014, an improvement of 1,300 basis points. The period-to-period improvement in Connectivity service margin was largely due to improved optimization of our satellite bandwidth costs during the year ended December 31, 2015, coupled with higher service revenue from increased take rates and passenger usage on Southwest Airlines during the year ended December 31, 2015 versus the year ended December 31, 2014.
2014 compared to 2013 . Connectivity cost of sales increased $22.7 million , or 36% , to $86.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to $63.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 due to a $10.4 million increase in Connectivity equipment cost of sales, coupled with a $12.3 million increase in Connectivity services cost of sales. The increase in Connectivity equipment cost of sales was associated with the corresponding increase in equipment revenue as a result of the timing of equipment installations in 2014 on the Southwest Airlines fleet as compared to 2013. The Connectivity service cost of sales increase was principally a result of higher satellite bandwidth costs to support the growth in our Connectivity service revenue during the same period.
As a percentage of Connectivity equipment revenue, Connectivity equipment cost of sales was 89% during 2014 as compared to 80% during 2013, an increase of 900 basis points. The period over period change in contribution margin was primarily due to higher mix of equipment installations on the Southwest Airlines fleet in 2014, as compared to 2014, which were sold at less favorable margins as compared to other airlines.
As a percentage of Connectivity service revenue, Connectivity services cost of sales was 73% during the year ended December 31, 2014 as compared to 83% during the year ended December 31, 2013, an improvement of 1,000 basis points. The period to period improvement was largely due to increased passenger service revenue from airlines, coupled with a full year of TV Flies Free on Southwest Airlines in 2014 as compared to half of the year in 2013, which exceeded certain fixed satellite bandwidth costs during 2014 as compared to 2013.
Content operating segment cost of sales was as follows (in thousands):
 
Year Ended December 31,
 
% Change
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2014 to 2015
 
2013 to 2014
Content Cost of Sales
$
203,693

 
$
195,454

 
$
134,207

 
4
%
 
46
%
2015 compared to 2014 . Content cost of sales increased $8.2 million to $203.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, as compared to $195.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2014. This increase was mainly driven by the period-over-period growth from existing Content customers as well as new acquisitions acquired in the third quarter of 2015.
As a percentage of Content revenue, Content licensing cost of sales of  66%  during the year ended December 31, 2015 decreased as compared to  70%  during the year ended December 31, 2014. The decrease was primarily due to improved content purchasing and recent acquisitions.
2014 compared to 2013 . Content cost of sales increased  $61.2 million  to  $195.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, as compared to  $134.2 million  for the year ended December 31, 2013. Consistent with the change in Content revenue over the same period, the increase was primarily due to the acquisitions of PMG and IFES, which we acquired on July 10, 2013 and October 18, 2013, respectively, and were not part of our operations as of June 30, 2013. When combined, PMG and IFES incurred $42.5 million of content cost of sales in the year ended December 31, 2014 during periods each were not a part of the Company’s operations during the comparable year ended December 31, 2013. The remaining increase of $18.7 million was largely due to AIA, which we acquired on January 31, 2013 and was only a part of our operations for a partial period during the year ended December 31, 2013.